In Level 9, students develop familiarity with a broader range of non-linear and linear functions and relations, and related algebra and graphs.
Students apply index laws with integer indices to a...
In Level 9, students develop familiarity with a broader range of non-linear and linear functions and relations, and related algebra and graphs.
Students apply index laws with integer indices to a range of numerical expressions and extend this to algebraic expressions involving numbers and pro-numerals. They use indices to express very large and very small numbers in scientific notation, and apply this in measurement contexts. Students solve problems involving direct proportion and rates, and simple interest. They apply coordinate geometry to finding the distance between two points in the Cartesian plane, and the midpoint and gradient of a line segment joining two points. Students graph linear relations and solve linear equations, using tables of values, graphs and algebra. They graph simple non-linear relations such as parabolas, the reciprocal function, and circles at the origin, and solve simple related equations with and without the use of digital technology.
Students find areas of composite shapes and the surface area and volumes of right prisms and cylinders. They solve problems involving very small and very large time scales and intervals, and use scientific notation in this context. Students use similarity, enlargement transformations and apply geometric reasoning to solve problems involving ratio and scale factors. They use Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry ratios to solve problems in the plane involving right angles triangles, and develop an understanding that these involve irrational real numbers, which are generally represented by rational approximations specified to a given accuracy.
Students list outcomes for two-step experiments involving selections with and without replacement, using arrays and tree diagrams, and determine related probabilities. They use Venn diagrams and two-way tables to calculate probabilities and relative frequencies from collected or given data to estimate probabilities. They identify issues and questions involving categorical and numerical data, use back-to-back stem-plots and histograms to describe and compare the distribution of data in terms of location (centre), spread and symmetry or skew.
Number and Algebra
Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without...
Number and Algebra
Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles.
Statistics and Probability
Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events.
In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical...
In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical argument and proof in establishing mathematical propositions. Students apply mental, written or technology-assisted forms of computation as appropriate, and routinely use estimation to validate or provide bounds for their answers. They use exponential functions to model compound interest problems.
Students expand, factorise, simplify and substitute into a wide range of algebraic expressions, including linear, quadratic, and exponential terms and relations, as well as simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators. They solve related equations, linear inequalities and simultaneous linear equations, with and without the use of digital technology. They explore the connection between tabular, graphical and algebraic representations of non-linear relations, including circles with centres at any location in the Cartesian plane.
Students solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of objects, and follow proofs of key geometric results involving the application of congruence and similarity. They solve practical problems in two and three dimensions involving right angles triangles, Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry.
Students extend their work in probability to combinations of up to three events, using lists, tables, Venn diagrams, tree diagrams and grids as applicable to determine probabilities. They explore the concepts of conditional probability and independence, and their application to solving problems involving chance events.
Students use quartiles and the interquartile range as a measure of spread, and construct and interpret boxplots to compare data sets. They relate box plots to corresponding dot plots and histograms. Students explore the association between two numerical variables using scatterplots, in particular with time as the independent variable. They discuss claims made using statistics in various media articles and other reports, on issues of interest.
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite...
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular lines, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions.
Statistics and Probability
Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments.