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Content description VCHHK117

History / Levels 7 and 8 / Historical Knowledge / Middle Ages and early exploration
Content description
Significant causes and effects of developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the concentration and/or expansion of wealth and power
  1. Vikings Show elaborations
    • mapping Viking expansion across Europe, weapons and shipbuilding, and the extent of their trade
    • describing Viking craft with particular emphasis on the production of weapons, for example swords, battle axes and helmets
    • outlining the key role of gods such as Odin, Thor, Frey and Freyja in Viking religion and the adoption of Christianity during the Viking period
    • investigating the construction of longboats and their role in exploration, including innovations in keel and sail design
    • describing evidence of Viking trade between Russia (Kiev) and the east (through Constantinople)
  2. Medieval Europe Show elaborations
    • explaining the changing relations between Islam and the West (including the Crusades), analyse the causes and effects of the crusades
    • describing the features of castles and churches of the period, for example, Warwick Castle in England and Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, as examples of the Church’s power in terms of its control of wealth and labour
    • recognising that the medieval manuscripts of monastic scribes contributed to the survival of many ancient Greek and Roman literary texts
    • examining the religious nature of illuminated manuscripts and how they were the product of a complex and frequently costly process
    • listening to the Gregorian chants of Western Christianity and exploring how they reflect the nature and power of the Church in this period
  3. Ottoman Empire Show elaborations
    • mapping the expanding power and influence of the Ottoman Empire, explain reasons for its development, such as the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD (CE)
    • outlining inventions and developments in the Islamic world, for example, the astrolabe, public hospitals and libraries and their subsequent adoption in the Western world
    • describing Ottoman art and architecture, for example, the Selimiye Mosque in the city of Edirne in Turkey, and Islamic geometric design
  4. Angkor/Khmer Empire Show elaborations
    • explaining how being revered as the ‘god-king’ or ‘deva-raja’ enabled the Khmer kings to rule over the empire with absolute authority, thereby enhancing their ability to mobilise manpower to defend the empire as well as to invade neighbours
    • describing the main features of the water management system at Angkor, for example, the extensive use of reservoirs and canals
    • investigating the significance of the archaeological site of Angkor Wat
  5. Mongol Expansion Show elaborations
    • outlining Genghis Khan’s use of decimal organisation in his army and his policies for governing his empire, for example, codifying laws, banning the killing of animals in the breeding season, supporting religious freedom, and expanding trade
    • analysing the causes and effects of the Mongol expansion as one of the largest land empires in history, including life in China before, during and after the Mongol conquest
    • mapping the expansion of the Mongol empire across Asia and Europe
  6. Japan under the Shoguns Show elaborations
    • discussing the role of the Tokugawa Shogunate in reimposing a feudal system (based on daimyo and samurai) and the increasing control of the Shogun over foreign trade
    • explain reasons why the Shogun controlled trade
    • explaining reasons for Japan’s closure to foreigners under the Tokugawa Shogunate and the impact of US Commodore Perry’s visit in 1853
    • explaining why the use and management of environmental resources in Shogunate Japan and the forestry and land use policies of the Tokugawa Shogunate were required
    • investigating the demand for available land and the patterns of land use in the period
    • outlining the attempts by the Tokugawa Shogunate to curb deforestation, for example imposing heavy regulations on farmers, managing the harvesting of trees, and using new, lighter and more efficient construction techniques
    • analysing the woodblock prints such as the ones created by Hokusai, geisha culture, and the development of the arts
  7. Polynesian Expansion Show elaborations
    • locating Polynesia on a map, tracing the expansion of Polynesian settlers throughout the Pacific, and considering how they made their journeys
    • outlining different theories about the expansion, for example, west/east and east/west movement, the expansion as accidental versus intentional
    • investigating the cultural achievements of one Polynesian society, such as the Ta moko and hangi in Maori society or the moai constructed on Easter Island
    • investigating the construction of the moai (giant statues) on Easter Island (Rapa Nui), the techniques used to make and transport them, and theories about their meaning, for example, representations of dead ancestors or chiefs
  8. Renaissance Italy Show elaborations
    • analysing the effects of the Black Death in causing the Renaissance
    • organising notes using a concept map or visual display of the significant developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the concentration of wealth and power in the city-states, such as art and learning and the invention of the printing press
    • describing the work of Leonardo Da Vinci, for example, his artworks the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper and inventions including a rudimentary helicopter and solar power;
    • describing the work of Michelangelo for example, the Sistine Chapel paintings, David, Pieta
    • describing the thinking of Copernicus for example, seeing the sun as the centre of the universe (astronomy)
    • investigating learning in the Renaissance period, for example humanism, astrology, alchemy, the influence of ancient Greece and Rome
    • investigating the achievements of Galileo, for example improvements in the telescope and his astronomical observations
  9. Spanish Conquest Show elaborations
    • analysing the causes of Spanish exploration and expansion including when, how and why the Spanish arrived in the Americas, and where they went, including the various societies and geographical features they encountered
    • explaining the arrival of Spanish conquistadores in Mexico and Peru from 1510 CE (Balboa) to 1531 (Pizarro), and their reasons, for example, seeking wealth, claiming land for their king, converting the local populations to Christianity, sense of adventure
    • explaining the siege of Tenochtitlan
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