In Level 4, students extend the number system to simple decimal fractions, and broaden their use of measures and scales.
Students model, represent and order numbers to tens of thousands, and extend...
In Level 4, students extend the number system to simple decimal fractions, and broaden their use of measures and scales.
Students model, represent and order numbers to tens of thousands, and extend place value to tenths and hundredths. They investigate odd and even numbers and explore number patterns based on multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Students develop facility with multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They investigate simple equivalent fractions and count by halves, thirds and quarters, and locate corresponding elements on a number line. Students use simple decimals to solve money problems including total cost and change. They solve simple number sentences and word problems involving all four operations.
Students use scaled instruments with metric units to measure and compare length, mass, capacity and temperature. They compare shapes and objects using familiar metric units for area and volume, and compare angles with respect to a right angle. Students use 'am' and 'pm' notations, and solve simple time problems, including conversions between units of time. They construct new shapes by combining or splitting common shapes, and create symmetric patterns, pictures and shapes with and without the use of technology. They interpret and use basic maps with simple scales, directions and legends.
Students select and trial different methods for collecting data, including surveys. They construct suitable data displays with and without the use of technology, where there is a many-to-one relationship between elements of graphs and data, and evaluate the effectiveness of different displays. They identify relative likelihood of everyday events, and identify events that are mutually exclusive and events that are independent.
Number and Algebra
Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples...
Number and Algebra
Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of single-digit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line.
Measurement and Geometry
Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes, using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. Students use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area, mass, capacity and temperature of shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical simple and composite shapes and patterns, with and without the use of digital technology. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students interpret information contained in maps.
Statistics and Probability
Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events.
In Level 5, students extend decimal fractions to thousandths, and explore the ideas of factors, multiples and divisibility.
Students use estimation and rounding for all four operations, with and...
In Level 5, students extend decimal fractions to thousandths, and explore the ideas of factors, multiples and divisibility.
Students use estimation and rounding for all four operations, with and without the use of technology for calculation. They solve multiple digit problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division by single digit divisors with remainders. Students represent, compare and order unit fractions, and decimal fractions, and represent them on a number line. They construct simple budgets for familiar events and activities. They solve numbers sentences involving division, and create number patterns involving fractions and decimals.
Students choose and use suitable metric and other units for measurement of length, angle, area, volume, capacity and mass. They calculate the perimeter and area of rectangles, and construct specified angles using protractors and other relevant technologies. Students use 12 and 24 hour time systems, with measurements and conversions to seconds. They use grid reference systems to describe location and connect three-dimension objects with two-dimensional representations. They translate, reflect and rotate shapes with and without the use of technology, and identify point and line symmetries. They explore similarity of familiar shapes through enlargement.
Students pose questions to collect categorical and numerical data by observation and survey, and represent the data in a variety of ways with and without the use of technology. They describe and interpret data sets in context. Students recognise that probabilities are measured on a scale of 0 to 1 (inclusive), and represent the probability of events from simple experiments using fractions.
Number and Algebra
Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles and volume, and capacity of rectangular prisms. They...
Number and Algebra
Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles and volume, and capacity of rectangular prisms. They convert between 12 and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They estimate angles, and use protractors and digital technology to construct and measure angles. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry.
Statistics and Probability
Students pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology. They compare and interpret different data sets. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1.
In Level 6, students work with prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and carry out mental, written and technology based computation to solve whole number problems involving all four operations...
In Level 6, students work with prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and carry out mental, written and technology based computation to solve whole number problems involving all four operations. They explore everyday situations involving integers, and use a number line to represent them. They scale decimals by powers of ten, and add and subtract decimals with and without technology, and estimate their answers. Students calculate simple percentage discounts, multiply decimals by whole numbers, carry out divisions with terminating decimal remainders, and use simple fraction, decimal and percentage equivalences with and without technology. They create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals, describe their rules, and use brackets and order of operations to write number sentences involving multiple operations.
Students use decimals for metric measurement, convert between units, recognise the prefixes used in metric measurements, and relate and compare measures and units, including capacity and volume. They develop and use timetables. Students investigate combinations of transformations with and without technology, and use the Cartesian coordinate system to describe location in the plane. They investigate the sum of angles at a point on a line and vertically opposite angles.
Students carry out experiments involving chance with and without technology, compare variation in frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies, and use fractions, decimals and percentages to describe probabilities. They interpret a range of data displays, including those for two categorical variables, and interpret data presented in the media.
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals...
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students write number sentences using brackets and order of operations, and specify rules used to generate sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They use ordered pairs of integers to represent coordinates of points and locate a point in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane.
Measurement and Geometry
Students relate decimals to the metric system and choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation. They solve problems involving time, length and area, and make connections between capacity and volume. Students interpret a variety of everyday timetables. They solve problems using the properties of angles and investigate simple combinations of transformations in the plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students construct simple prisms and pyramids.
Statistics and Probability
Students interpret and compare a variety of data displays, including displays for two categorical variables. They analyse and evaluate data from secondary sources. Students compare observed and expected frequencies of events, including those where outcomes of trials are generated with the use of digital technology. They specify, list and communicate probabilities of events using simple ratios, fractions, decimals and percentages.
In Level 7, students work with powers of whole numbers, use index notation, represent numbers as products of powers of prime numbers, and investigate square roots of perfect squares. They use number...
In Level 7, students work with powers of whole numbers, use index notation, represent numbers as products of powers of prime numbers, and investigate square roots of perfect squares. They use number properties to assist with calculation and order, and to add and subtract integers. Students find equivalent fractions, represent positive and negative fractions and mixed numbers on a number line and add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions and decimals with and without the use of technology. They express one quantity as a fraction of another, round to a specified number of decimal places, and convert between fractions, decimals and percentages. They find percentages of quantities and one quantity as a percentage of another. They solve simple ratio problems and calculate best buys with and without the use of technology.
Students use variables to express relationships in real life data, and interpret and analyse corresponding graphs. They use pro-numerals to construct simple algebraic expressions and substitute numerical values into these. They solve simple linear equations and plot points on the Cartesian plane.
Students use formulas for calculating areas of triangles, rectangles and related shapes, and volumes of cubes and rectangular prisms. They form two-dimensional representations of prisms, buildings and other structures. They use simple combinations of transformations, with and without technology, to create geometric patterns and identify line and point symmetry, apply parallel line and transversal angle properties, angles sums in triangles and quadrilaterals, classify triangles and quadrilaterals, and construct them using compass and straight edge and dynamic geometry technology.
Students construct sample spaces for simple experiments involving chance, and assign probabilities to outcomes. They use data from primary and secondary sources to investigate issues of interest, and employ data displays such as dot plots and stem and leaf plots to compare data sets, and calculate measures of centre and simple measures of spread to analyse and interpret the data.
Number and Algebra
Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers and connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane...
Number and Algebra
Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers and connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals and represent transformations of these shapes on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students name the types of angles formed by transversals crossing parallel lines and solve simple numerical problems involving these lines and angles. They describe different views of three-dimensional objects, and use models, sketches and digital technology to represent these views. Students calculate volumes of rectangular prisms.
Statistics and Probability
Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign probabilities outcomes.
In Level 8, students consolidate their proficiency with the four arithmetic operations, and combinations of these, for general computation involving natural numbers, integers and rational numbers...
In Level 8, students consolidate their proficiency with the four arithmetic operations, and combinations of these, for general computation involving natural numbers, integers and rational numbers, with and without the use of technology. They represent these numbers on the real number line. They extend the use of indices and develop the index laws using number examples. Students investigate the relationship between decimal and fraction representations of rational numbers (terminating and recurring decimals) and work with some irrational real numbers such as square roots and multiples and fractions of π (pi). They solve a range of problems involving ratios, proportions, percentages and rates, with and without the use of digital technologies.
Students generalise from number to algebra, and expand, factorise, simplify and substitute into simple algebraic expressions. They plot linear relations on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology, solve linear equations and apply linear models.
Students convert between units for area and for volume, and solve problems involving duration using 12-hour and 24-hour time, within a given time zone. They develop and use formulas for calculating perimeters and areas of quadrilaterals and circles, and volumes of prisms, and solve related measurement problems.
Students use congruence and transformations to establish properties of plane shapes related to sides, angles and symmetry, and solve related problems.
Students use the logical connectives ‘not’, ‘and’, ‘or’ and ‘either … or’ to relate events to probabilities, and use Venn diagrams and two-way tables to calculate probabilities. They develop an understanding that probabilities range from 0 to 1 and that the sum of probabilities for events in a sample space is 1.
Students investigate and use various techniques for collecting data, including random sampling. They use digital technology to explore the variability of proportions and means in random samples drawn from a given population, and investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers, on the measure of centre (average).
Number and Algebra
Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.
Measurement and Geometry
Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the...
Number and Algebra
Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.
Measurement and Geometry
Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes.
Statistics and Probability
Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.
In Level 9, students develop familiarity with a broader range of non-linear and linear functions and relations, and related algebra and graphs.
Students apply index laws with integer indices to...
In Level 9, students develop familiarity with a broader range of non-linear and linear functions and relations, and related algebra and graphs.
Students apply index laws with integer indices to a range of numerical expressions and extend this to algebraic expressions involving numbers and pro-numerals. They use indices to express very large and very small numbers in scientific notation, and apply this in measurement contexts. Students solve problems involving direct proportion and rates, and simple interest. They apply coordinate geometry to finding the distance between two points in the Cartesian plane, and the midpoint and gradient of a line segment joining two points. Students graph linear relations and solve linear equations, using tables of values, graphs and algebra. They graph simple non-linear relations such as parabolas, the reciprocal function, and circles at the origin, and solve simple related equations with and without the use of digital technology.
Students find areas of composite shapes and the surface area and volumes of right prisms and cylinders. They solve problems involving very small and very large time scales and intervals, and use scientific notation in this context. Students use similarity, enlargement transformations and apply geometric reasoning to solve problems involving ratio and scale factors. They use Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry ratios to solve problems in the plane involving right angles triangles, and develop an understanding that these involve irrational real numbers, which are generally represented by rational approximations specified to a given accuracy.
Students list outcomes for two-step experiments involving selections with and without replacement, using arrays and tree diagrams, and determine related probabilities. They use Venn diagrams and two-way tables to calculate probabilities and relative frequencies from collected or given data to estimate probabilities. They identify issues and questions involving categorical and numerical data, use back-to-back stem-plots and histograms to describe and compare the distribution of data in terms of location (centre), spread and symmetry or skew.
Number and Algebra
Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without...
Number and Algebra
Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles.
Statistics and Probability
Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events.
In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical...
In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical argument and proof in establishing mathematical propositions. Students apply mental, written or technology-assisted forms of computation as appropriate, and routinely use estimation to validate or provide bounds for their answers. They use exponential functions to model compound interest problems.
Students expand, factorise, simplify and substitute into a wide range of algebraic expressions, including linear, quadratic, and exponential terms and relations, as well as simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators. They solve related equations, linear inequalities and simultaneous linear equations, with and without the use of digital technology. They explore the connection between tabular, graphical and algebraic representations of non-linear relations, including circles with centres at any location in the Cartesian plane.
Students solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of objects, and follow proofs of key geometric results involving the application of congruence and similarity. They solve practical problems in two and three dimensions involving right angles triangles, Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry.
Students extend their work in probability to combinations of up to three events, using lists, tables, Venn diagrams, tree diagrams and grids as applicable to determine probabilities. They explore the concepts of conditional probability and independence, and their application to solving problems involving chance events.
Students use quartiles and the interquartile range as a measure of spread, and construct and interpret boxplots to compare data sets. They relate box plots to corresponding dot plots and histograms. Students explore the association between two numerical variables using scatterplots, in particular with time as the independent variable. They discuss claims made using statistics in various media articles and other reports, on issues of interest.
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite...
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular lines, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions.
Statistics and Probability
Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments.