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Civics and Citizenship

Civics and Citizenship Level Description

The Level 9 and 10 curriculum builds students’ understanding of Australia’s political system and how it enables change. Students examine the ways political parties, interest groups, media and individuals influence government and decision-making processes. They compare Australia’s system of government with another system of government in the Asian region. Students examine Australia’s roles...

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Civics and Citizenship Content Descriptions

Government and Democracy

  1. Discuss the role of political parties and independent representatives in Australia’s system of government, including the formation of governments, and explain the process through which government policy is shaped and developed (VCCCG028)
  2. Explain the values and key features of Australia’s system of government compared with at least one other system of government in the Asia region (VCCCG029)
  3. Analyse how citizens’ political choices are shaped, including the influence of the media (VCCCG030)
  4. Explain the Australian government’s roles and responsibilities at a global level, including provision of foreign aid, peacekeeping and the United Nations (VCCCG031)

Laws and Citizens

  1. Explain how Australia’s international legal obligations shape Australian law and government policies, including in relation to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCCCL032)
  2. Describe the key features of Australia’s court system, including jurisdictions and how courts apply and interpret the law, resolve disputes and make law through judgments, and describe the role of the High Court in interpreting the Constitution (VCCCL033)
  3. Discuss the key principles of Australia’s justice system, including equality before the law, independent judiciary, and right of appeal (VCCCL034)

Citizenship, Diversity and Identity

  1. Analyse contemporary examples and issues relating to Australian democracy and global connections, including key aspects of citizenship in a pluralist society (VCCCC035)
  2. Discuss challenges to and ways of sustaining a resilient democracy and cohesive society (VCCCC036)
  3. Discuss how and why groups, including religious groups, participate in civic life (VCCCC037)
  4. Examine the influence of a range of media, including social media, in shaping identities and attitudes to diversity and how ideas about Australian identity may be influenced by global events (VCCCC038)

Civics and Citizenship Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students evaluate features of Australia’s political system, and identify and analyse the influences on people’s electoral choices. They compare and evaluate the key features and values of systems of government, and analyse Australia’s global roles and responsibilities. They analyse the role of the High Court and explain how Australia’s international legal obligations influence law and government policy. They explain the key principles of Australia’s system of justice and analyse the role of Australia’s court system. They analyse a range of factors that influence identities and attitudes to diversity. Students evaluate a range of factors that sustain democratic societies and analyse ways they can be active and informed citizens in different contexts, taking into account multiple perspectives and ambiguities.

Critical and Creative Thinking

Critical and Creative Thinking Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to recognise and manage what is often implicit in thinking. Students learn and apply techniques to progress, analyse and evaluate thinking. Students develop an understanding that it is often necessary to take a range of perspectives and to challenge assumptions.

Critical and Creative Thinking Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Investigate the characteristics of effective questions in different contexts to examine information and test possibilities (VCCCTQ043)
  2. Suspend judgements to allow new possibilities to emerge and investigate how this can broaden ideas and solutions (VCCCTQ044)
  3. Challenge previously held assumptions and create new links, proposals and artefacts by investigating ideas that provoke shifts in perspectives and cross boundaries to generate ideas and solutions (VCCCTQ045)

Reasoning

  1. Examine a range of rhetorical devices and reasoning errors, including false dichotomies and begging the question (VCCCTR046)
  2. Examine how to identify and analyse suppressed premises and assumptions (VCCCTR047)
  3. Investigate the nature and use of counter examples structured as arguments (VCCCTR048)
  4. Consider ambiguity and equivocation and how they affect the strength of arguments (VCCCTR049)
  5. Investigate use of additional or refined criteria when application of original criteria does not produce a clear conclusion (VCCCTR050)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Critically examine their own and others thinking processes and discuss factors that influence thinking, including cognitive biases (VCCCTM051)
  2. Investigate how the use of a range of learning strategies can be monitored, evaluated and re-directed as necessary (VCCCTM052)
  3. Investigate the kind of criteria that can be used to rationally evaluate the quality of ideas and proposals, including the qualities of viability and workability (VCCCTM053)

Critical and Creative Thinking Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students construct and evaluate questions, including their own, for their effectiveness. They demonstrate a willingness to shift their perspective when generating ideas, resulting in new ways of perceiving solutions.

Students structure complex valid arguments. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test validity within and between arguments. Students identify, articulate, analyse and reflect on their own and others thinking processes. They use, monitor, evaluate and redirect as necessary a range of learning strategies. Students develop, justify and refine criteria to evaluate the quality of ideas, proposals and thinking processes.

Dance

Dance Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students develop a personal movement vocabulary that is informed by knowledge of dance from different cultures, times and locations.

Students build on their awareness of how the body can be used to communicate dance ideas and how it is used in specific dance styles. They extend their understanding and use of the elements of dance (space, time, dynamics and relationships...

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Dance Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Explore personal movement style by combining elements of dance and using improvisation and safe dance practice to develop new movement possibilities (VCADAE040)
  2. Manipulate combinations of the elements of dance and choreographic devices to communicate their choreographic intent (VCADAE041)

Dance Practices

  1. Practise and refine technical and expressive skills to develop proficiency in genre and style-specific techniques (VCADAD042)
  2. Structure dances using movement motifs, choreographic devices and form (VCADAD043)

Present and Perform

  1. Perform dances using genre-and style specific techniques, expressive skills and productions elements to communicate a choreographer’s intent (VCADAP044)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Evaluate their own choreography and performance, and that of others, to inform and refine future work (VCADAR045)
  2. Analyse a range of dance from contemporary and past times, including dance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, to explore differing viewpoints and develop understanding of dance practice across local, national and international contexts (VCADAR046)

Dance Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students choreograph dances by manipulating and combining the elements of dance, choreographic devices, and form and production elements to communicate their choreographic intent. They choreograph, rehearse and perform dances, demonstrating safe dance practice and technical and expressive skills appropriate to the style and genre.

Students analyse choreographers’ use of the elements of dance, choreographic devices, and form and production elements to communicate choreographic intent in dances they make, perform and view. They evaluate the impact of dance from different cultures, times and locations.

Design and Technologies

Design and Technologies Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students use design thinking, design and technologies knowledge and understanding, processes and production skills to produce designed solutions to identified needs or opportunities of relevance to individuals, local, national, regional and global communities.

Students undertake problem-solving activities that acknowledge the complexities of contemporary life and make connections...

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Design and Technologies Content Descriptions

Technologies and Society

  1. Critically analyse factors, including social, ethical and sustainability considerations, that impact on designed solutions for global preferred futures and the complex design and production processes involved (VCDSTS054)
  2. Explain how designed solutions evolve with consideration of preferred futures and the impact of emerging technologies on design decisions (VCDSTS055)

Technologies Contexts

Engineering principles and systems
  1. Investigate and make judgements on how the characteristics and properties of materials are combined with force, motion and energy to create engineered solutions (VCDSTC056)
Food and fibre production
  1. Investigate and make judgements on the ethical and sustainable production and marketing of food and fibre (VCDSTC057)
Food specialisations
  1. Investigate and make judgements on how the principles of food safety, preservation, preparation, presentation and sensory perceptions influence the creation of food solutions for healthy eating (VCDSTC058)
Materials and technologies specialisations
  1. Investigate and make judgements on how the characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment can be combined to create designed solutions (VCDSTC059)

Creating Designed Solutions

Investigating
  1. Critique needs or opportunities to develop design briefs and investigate and select an increasingly sophisticated range of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment to develop design ideas (VCDSCD060)
Generating
  1. Apply design thinking, creativity, innovation and enterprise skills to develop, modify and communicate design ideas of increasing sophistication (VCDSCD061)
Producing
  1. Work flexibly to safely test, select, justify and use appropriate technologies and processes to make designed solutions (VCDSCD062)
Evaluating
  1. Evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions against comprehensive criteria for success recognising the need for sustainability (VCDSCD063)
Planning and managing
  1. Develop project plans to plan and manage projects individually and collaboratively taking into consideration time, cost, risk and production processes (VCDSCD064)

Design and Technologies Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10 students explain how people working in design and technologies occupations consider factors that impact on design decisions and the technologies used to create designed solutions. They identify the changes necessary to designed solutions to realise preferred futures they have described. When creating designed solutions for identified needs or opportunities students evaluate the features of technologies and their appropriateness for purpose for one or more of the technologies contexts.

Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts based on a critical evaluation of needs or opportunities. They establish detailed criteria for success, including sustainability considerations, and use these to evaluate their ideas and designed solutions and processes. They generate and connect design ideas and processes of increasing complexity and justify decisions. Students communicate and document projects, including marketing for a range of audiences. They independently and collaboratively apply sequenced production and management plans when producing designed solutions, making adjustments to plans when necessary. They select and use appropriate technologies skilfully and safely to produce quality designed solutions suitable for the intended purpose.

Digital Technologies

Digital Technologies Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students apply systems thinking skills when considering how human interaction with networked systems introduces complexities surrounding access to, and the security and privacy of, data of various types. They interrogate security practices and techniques used to compress data, and learn about the importance of separating content, presentation and behavioural elements for...

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Digital Technologies Content Descriptions

Digital Systems

  1. Investigate the role of hardware and software in managing, controlling and securing the movement of and access to data in networked digital systems (VCDTDS045)

Data and Information

  1. Analyse simple compression of data and how content data are separated from presentation (VCDTDI046)
  2. Develop techniques for acquiring, storing and validating quantitative and qualitative data from a range of sources, considering privacy and security requirements (VCDTDI047)
  3. Analyse and visualise data to create information and address complex problems, and model processes, entities and their relationships using structured data (VCDTDI048)
  4. Manage and collaboratively create interactive solutions for sharing ideas and information online, taking into account social contexts and legal responsibilities (VCDTDI049)

Creating Digital Solutions

  1. Define and decompose real-world problems precisely, taking into account functional and non-functional requirements and including interviewing stakeholders to identify needs (VCDTCD050)
  2. Design the user experience of a digital system, evaluating alternative designs against criteria including functionality, accessibility, usability and aesthetics (VCDTCD051)
  3. Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in structured English and validate algorithms and programs through tracing and test cases (VCDTCD052)
  4. Develop modular programs, applying selected algorithms and data structures including using an object-oriented programming language (VCDTCD053)
  5. Evaluate critically how well student-developed solutions and existing information systems and policies take account of future risks and sustainability and provide opportunities for innovation (VCDTCD054)

Digital Technologies Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students explain the control and management of networked digital systems and the data security implications of the interaction between hardware, software and users.

Students explain simple data compression, and why content data are separated from presentation. They take account of privacy and security requirements when selecting and validating data and use digital systems to analyse, visualise and model salient aspects of data. Students share and collaborate online, establishing protocols for the legal and safe use, transmission and maintenance of data and projects.

Students define and decompose complex problems in terms of functional and non-functional requirements. They design and evaluate user experiences and algorithms, and develop and test modular programs, including an object-oriented program. Students evaluate their solutions and information systems in terms of risk, sustainability and potential for innovation.

Drama

Drama Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students develop more sophisticated approaches to making and responding to drama independently, in small groups, and with their teachers and communities. They continue to explore drama as an art form through improvisation, scripted drama, rehearsal and performance.

Students refine and extend their understanding and use of role, character, relationships and situation. They...

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Drama Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Improvise with the elements of drama and narrative structure to develop ideas, and explore subtext to shape devised and scripted drama (VCADRE040)
  2. Manipulate combinations of the elements of drama to develop and convey the physical and psychological aspects of roles and characters consistent with intentions in dramatic forms and performance styles (VCADRE041)

Drama Practices

  1. Practise and refine the expressive capacity of voice and movement to communicate ideas and dramatic action in a range of forms, styles and performances spaces (VCADRD042)
  2. Structure drama to engage an audience through manipulation of dramatic action, forms and performance styles and by using design elements (VCADRD043)

Present and Perform

  1. Perform devised and scripted drama making deliberate artistic choices and shaping design elements to unify dramatic meaning for an audience (VCADRP044)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Evaluate how the elements of drama, forms and performance styles in devised and scripted drama to convey meaning and aesthetic effect (VCADRR045)
  2. Analyse a range of drama from contemporary and past times, including the drama of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to explore differing viewpoints and develop understanding of drama practice across local, national and international contexts (VCADRR046)

Drama Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students develop and sustain different roles and characters to realise dramatic intentions and engage audiences. They perform devised and scripted drama in different forms, styles and performance spaces. They plan, direct, produce, rehearse and refine performances. They select and use the elements of drama, narrative and structure in directing and acting and apply stagecraft. They use performance and expressive skills to convey dramatic action and meaning.

Students analyse the elements of drama, forms and performance styles and evaluate meaning and aesthetic effect in drama they devise, interpret, perform and view. They use experiences of drama practices from different cultures, places and times to evaluate drama.

Economics and Business

Economics and Business Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students consider how the Australian economy is performing and the importance of its interactions and relationships with the Asia region and the global economy in achieving growth and prosperity. This includes the significance of trading relationships in supporting prosperous outcomes for the economy and the business sector. Students explore the relationship between economic...

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Economics and Business Content Descriptions

Resource Allocation and Making Choices

  1. Investigate Australia as a trading nation and its place within Asia and the global economy (VCEBR020)
  2. Identify and explain the indicators of economic performance and examine how Australia’s economy is performing (VCEBR021)
  3. Explain the links between economic performance and living standards, including the variations that exist within and between economies, and give reasons for the possible causes of variations (VCEBR022)

Consumer and Financial Literacy

  1. Explain why and describe how people manage financial risks and rewards in the current Australian and global financial landscape (VCEBC023)

The Business Environment

  1. Explore the nature of innovation and discuss how businesses seek to create and maintain a competitive advantage in the market, including the global market (VCEBB024)

Work and Work Futures

  1. Research the way the work environment is changing in contemporary Australia and analyse the implications for current and future work (VCEBW025)
  2. Examine the roles and responsibilities of participants in the changing Australian or global workplace (VCEBW026)

Enterprising Behaviours and Capabilities

  1. Identify the ways enterprising behaviours and capabilities can be developed to improve the work and business environments (VCEBN027)

Economic and Business Reasoning and Interpretation

  1. Generate a range of viable options, taking into account multiple perspectives, use simple cost-benefit analysis to recommend and justify a course of action, and predict the intended and unintended consequences of economic and business decisions (VCEBE028)

Economics and Business Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students describe how resources are allocated and distributed in the Australian economy and the way economic performance is measured. They provide explanations for variations in economic performance and standards of living within and between economies. Students explain the importance of managing consumer and business financial risks and rewards and analyse the different strategies that may be used when making decisions. They explain the nature of innovation and why businesses need to create a competitive advantage. Students discuss ways that this may be achieved and the enterprising behaviours and capabilities that could be developed by individuals to assist the work and business environments. Students analyse the reasons why and how the work environment is changing and discuss the implications this has for individuals, businesses and the economy. Students identify economics and business trends, explain relationships and make predictions. They generate alternative responses to familiar, unfamiliar and complex problems taking into account multiple perspectives, and using cost-benefit analysis and appropriate criteria to propose and justify a course of action. Students analyse the intended and unintended effects of economic and business decisions and the potential consequences of alternative actions.

English

English Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students interact with peers, teachers, individuals, groups and community members in a range of face-to-face and online/virtual environments. They experience learning in familiar and unfamiliar contexts, including local community, vocational and global contexts.

Students engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment. They interpret, create, evaluate, discuss and perform a...

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English Content Descriptions

Reading and Viewing

Language
Language for interaction
  1. Understand that people’s evaluations of texts are influenced by their value systems, the context and the purpose and mode of communication (VCELA457)
Text structure and organisation
  1. Compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary texts in different media (VCELA458)
Expressing and developing ideas
  1. Evaluate the impact on audiences of different choices in the representation of still and moving images (VCELA459)
Literature
Literature and context
  1. Compare and evaluate a range of representations of individuals and groups in different historical, social and cultural contexts (VCELT460)
Responding to literature
  1. Analyse and explain how text structures, language features and visual features of texts and the context in which texts are experienced may influence audience response (VCELT461)
  2. Evaluate the social, moral and ethical positions represented in texts (VCELT462)
Examining literature
  1. Identify, explain and discuss how narrative viewpoint, structure, characterisation and devices including analogy and satire shape different interpretations and responses to a text (VCELT463)
  2. Analyse and evaluate text structures and language features of literary texts and make relevant thematic and intertextual connections with other texts (VCELT464)
  3. Compare and evaluate how ‘voice’ as a literary device can be used in a range of different types of texts such as poetry to evoke particular emotional responses (VCELT465)
Literacy
Texts in context
  1. Analyse and evaluate how people, cultures, places, events, objects and concepts are represented in texts, including media texts, through language, structural and/or visual choices (VCELY466)
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
  1. Identify and analyse implicit or explicit values, beliefs and assumptions in texts and how these are influenced by purposes and likely audiences (VCELY467)
  2. Choose a reading technique and reading path appropriate for the type of text, to retrieve and connect ideas within and between texts (VCELY468)
  3. Use comprehension strategies to compare and contrast information within and between texts, identifying and analysing embedded perspectives, and evaluating supporting evidence (VCELY469)

Writing

Language
Text structure and organisation
  1. Understand how paragraphs and images can be arranged for different purposes, audiences, perspectives and stylistic effects (VCELA470)
  2. Understand conventions for citing others, and how to reference these in different ways (VCELA471)
Expressing and developing ideas
  1. Analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of a wide range of sentence and clause structures as authors design and craft texts (VCELA472)
  2. Analyse how higher order concepts are developed in complex texts through language features including nominalisation, clause combinations, technicality and abstraction (VCELA473)
  3. Refine vocabulary choices to discriminate between shades of meaning, with deliberate attention to the effect on audiences (VCELA474)
Phonics and word knowledge
  1. Understand how to use knowledge of the spelling system to spell unusual and technical words accurately (VCELA475)
Literature
Creating literature
  1. Create literary texts that reflect an emerging sense of personal style and evaluate the effectiveness of these texts (VCELT476)
  2. Create literary texts with a sustained ‘voice’, selecting and adapting appropriate text structures, literary devices, language, auditory and visual structures and features for a specific purpose and intended audience (VCELT477)
  3. Create imaginative texts that make relevant thematic and intertextual connections with other texts (VCELT478)
Literacy
Creating texts
  1. Create sustained texts, including texts that combine specific digital or media content, for imaginative, informative, or persuasive purposes that reflect upon challenging and complex issues (VCELY479)
  2. Review, edit and refine own and others’ texts for control of content, organisation, sentence structure, vocabulary, and/or visual features to achieve particular purposes and effects (VCELY480)
  3. Use a range of software, including word processing programs, confidently, flexibly and imaginatively to create, edit and publish texts, considering the identified purpose and the characteristics of the user (VCELY481)

Speaking and Listening

Language
Language variation and change
  1. Understand that Standard Australian English in its spoken and written forms has a history of evolution and change and continues to evolve (VCELA482)
Language for interaction
  1. Understand how language use can have inclusive and exclusive social effects, and can empower or disempower people (VCELA483)
Literature
Responding to literature
  1. Reflect on, extend, endorse or refute others’ interpretations of and responses to literature (VCELT484)
Literacy
Interacting with others
  1. Identify and explore the purposes and effects of different text structures and language features of spoken texts, and use this knowledge to create purposeful texts that inform, persuade and engage audiences, using organisation patterns, voice and language conventions to present a coherent point of view on a subject (VCELY485)
  2. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements to influence a course of action, speaking clearly and using logic, imagery and rhetorical devices in order to engage audiences (VCELY486)

English Achievement Standard

Reading and Viewing

By the end of Level 10, students evaluate how text structures can be used in innovative ways by different authors. They explain how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary contributes to the development of individual style. They develop and justify their own interpretations of texts. They evaluate other interpretations, analysing the evidence used to support them.

Writing

Students show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images. They create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, vary vocabulary choices for impact, and accurately use spelling and punctuation when creating and editing texts.

Speaking and Listening

Students listen for ways features within texts can be manipulated to achieve particular effects. They show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images. They create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions building on others' ideas, solving problems, justifying opinions and developing and expanding arguments.

Ethical Capability

Ethical Capability Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understandings to analyse and evaluate ethical problems and their resolution and to identify and manage contestability in ethical matters. Students reflect on whether there are ethical concepts and principles common across people, groups and cultures.

Ethical Capability Content Descriptions

Understanding Concepts

  1. Investigate the connections and distinctions between and the relative value of concepts including fairness and equality, and respect and tolerance (VCECU019)
  2. Explore a range of ethical problems and examine the extent to which different positions are related to commonly held ethical concepts and principles, considering the influence of cultural norms, religion, world views and philosophical thought (VCECU020)
  3. Distinguish between the ethical and non-ethical dimensions of complex issues, including the distinction between ethical and legal issues (VCECU021)

Decision Making and Actions

  1. Discuss issues raised by thinking about consequences and duties, in approaches to decision-making and action, and arguments for and against these approaches (VCECD022)
  2. Investigate how different factors involved in ethical decision-making can be managed by people and groups (VCECD023)

Ethical Capability Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students explain connections and distinctions between ethical concepts, identifying areas of contestability in their meanings and relative value.

Students analyse and evaluate contested approaches to thinking about consequences and duties in relation to ethical issues. They examine complex issues, identify the ethical dimensions and analyse commonality and difference between different positions. They explain how different factors involved in ethical decision-making can be managed.

Geography

Geography Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students consider changes in the characteristics of places and the implications of these. They consider significant spatial distributions and patterns and evaluate their implications, and consider interconnections between and within places and changes resulting from these, over time and at different scales. This further develops their understanding of geographical concepts...

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Geography Content Descriptions

Geographical Concepts and Skills

Place, space and interconnection
  1. Predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify the possible implications of change for the future (VCGGC127)
  2. Identify, analyse and explain significant spatial distributions and patterns and identify and evaluate their implications, over time and at different scales (VCGGC128)
  3. Identify, analyse and explain significant interconnections within places and between places over time and at different scales, and evaluate the resulting changes and further consequences (VCGGC129)
Data and information
  1. Collect and record relevant geographical data and information, using ethical protocols, from reliable and useful primary and secondary sources (VCGGC130)
  2. Select, organise and represent data and information in different forms, including by constructing special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions, using digital and spatial technologies as appropriate (VCGGC131)
  3. Analyse and evaluate data, maps and other geographical information using digital and spatial technologies and Geographical Information Systems as appropriate, to develop identifications, descriptions, explanations and conclusions that use geographical terminology (VCGGC132)

Geographical Knowledge

Biomes and food security
  1. Distribution and characteristics of biomes as regions with distinctive climates, soils, vegetation and productivity (VCGGK133)
  2. Environmental, economic and technological factors that influence crop yields in Australia and across the world (VCGGK134)
  3. The interconnection between food production and land and water degradation; shortage of fresh water; competing land uses; and climate change, for Australia and other areas of the world (VCGGK135)
  4. Human alteration of biomes to produce food, industrial materials and fibres, and the environmental effects of these alterations (VCGGK136)
  5. Land and resource management strategies used by Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander peoples to achieve food security over time (VCGGK137)
  6. Challenges in feeding the current and projected populations of Australia and the world, and responses to these challenges (VCGGK138)
Geographies of interconnection
  1. Perceptions people have of place, and how this influences their connections to different places (VCGGK139)
  2. Ways in which transportation and information and communication technologies are used to connect people to services, information and people in other places (VCGGK140)
  3. Ways that places and people are interconnected with other places through trade in goods and services, at all scales (VCGGK141)
  4. Effects of the production and consumption of goods on places and environments throughout the world and including a country from North-East Asia (VCGGK142)
  5. Effects of people’s travel, recreational, cultural or leisure choices on places, and the implications for the future of these places (VCGGK143)
Environmental change and management
  1. Different types and distribution of environmental changes and the forms it takes in different places (VCGGK144)
  2. Environmental, economic and technological factors that influence environmental change and human responses to its management (VCGGK145)
  3. Environmental worldviews of people and their implications for environmental management (VCGGK146)
  4. Causes and consequences of an environmental change, comparing examples from Australia and at least one other country (VCGGK147)
  5. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ approaches to custodial responsibility and environmental management in different regions of Australia (VCGGK148)
  6. Application of environmental economic and social criteria in evaluating management responses to an environmental change, and the predicted outcomes and further consequences of management responses on the environment and places, comparing examples from Australia and at least one other country (VCGGK149)
Geographies of human wellbeing
  1. Interconnecting causes of spatial variations between countries in selected indicators of human wellbeing (VCGGK150)
  2. Reasons and consequences for spatial variations in human wellbeing on a regional scale within India or another country of the Asia region; and on a local scale in Australia (VCGGK151)
  3. Different ways of measuring and mapping human wellbeing and development, and how these can be applied to measure differences between places (VCGGK152)
  4. Issues affecting the development of places and their impact on human wellbeing, drawing on a study from a developing country or region in Africa, South America or the Pacific Islands (VCGGK153)
  5. Role of initiatives by international and national government and non-government organisations to improve human wellbeing in Australia and other countries (VCGGK154)

Geography Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students predict changes in the characteristics of places over time and identify implications of change for the future. They identify, analyse, and explain significant spatial distributions and patterns and significant interconnections within and between places, and identify and evaluate their implications, over time and at different scales.

They evaluate alternative views on a geographical challenge and alternative strategies to address this challenge, using environmental, social and economic criteria, explaining the predicted outcomes and further consequences and drawing a reasoned conclusion.

They ethically collect relevant geographical data and information from reliable and useful sources. They select, organise and represent data and information in different forms, using appropriate digital and spatial technologies and through special purpose maps that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse and evaluate geographical data, maps and information using digital and spatial technologies and Geographical Information Systems as appropriate to develop identifications, descriptions, explanations and conclusions that use geographical terminology.

Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education Level Description

The Level 9 and 10 curriculum supports students to refine and apply strategies for maintaining a positive outlook and evaluating behavioural expectations in different leisure, social, movement and online situations. Students learn to apply health and physical activity information to devise and implement personalised plans for maintaining healthy and active habits. They also experience different...

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Health and Physical Education Content Descriptions

Personal, Social and Community Health

Being healthy, safe and active
  1. Evaluate factors that shape identities, and analyse how individuals impact the identities of others (VCHPEP142)
  2. Examine the impact of changes and transitions on relationships (VCHPEP143)
  3. Plan, rehearse and evaluate options (including CPR and first aid) for managing situations where their own or others’ health, safety and wellbeing may be at risk (VCHPEP144)
  4. Identify and critique the accessibility and effectiveness of support services based in the community that impact on the ability to make healthy and safe choices (VCHPEP145)
Communicating and interacting for health and wellbeing
  1. Investigate how empathy and ethical decision-making contribute to respectful relationships (VCHPEP146)
  2. Evaluate situations and propose appropriate emotional responses and then reflect on possible outcomes of different responses to health and wellbeing (VCHPEP147)
  3. Evaluate health information from a range of sources and apply to health decisions and situations (VCHPEP148)
Contributing to healthy and active communities
  1. Plan, implement and critique strategies to enhance the health, safety and wellbeing of their communities (VCHPEP149)
  2. Plan and evaluate new and creative interventions that promote their own and others’ connection to community and natural and built environments (VCHPEP150)
  3. Critique behaviours and contextual factors that influence the health and wellbeing of their communities (VCHPEP151)

Movement and Physical Activity

Moving the body
  1. Perform and refine specialised movement skills in challenging movement situations (VCHPEM152)
  2. Evaluate own and others’ movement compositions, and provide and apply feedback in order to enhance performance situations (VCHPEM153)
  3. Develop, implement and evaluate movement concepts and strategies for successful outcomes (VCHPEM154)
Understanding movement
  1. Design, implement and evaluate personalised plans for improving or maintaining their own and others’ physical activity and fitness levels (VCHPEM155)
  2. Analyse the impact of effort, space, time, objects and people when composing and performing movement sequences (VCHPEM156)
  3. Examine the role physical activity, outdoor recreation and sport play in the lives of Australians and investigate how this has changed over time (VCHPEM157)
Learning through movement
  1. Devise, implement and refine strategies demonstrating leadership and collaboration skills when working in groups or teams (VCHPEM158)
  2. Transfer understanding from previous movement experiences to create solutions to movement challenges (VCHPEM159)
  3. Reflect on how fair play and ethical behaviour can influence the outcomes of movement activities (VCHPEM160)

Health and Physical Education Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students critically analyse contextual factors that influence their identities, relationships, decisions and behaviours. They analyse the impact of attitudes and beliefs about diversity on community connection and wellbeing. They evaluate the outcomes of emotional responses to different situations. Students access, synthesise and apply health information from credible sources to propose and justify responses to situations in the home, in the school and the community. Students propose and evaluate interventions to improve fitness and physical activity levels in their communities. They examine the role physical activity has played historically in defining cultures and cultural identities.

Students identify and analyse factors that contribute to respectful relationships. They explain the importance of cooperation, leadership and fair play across a range of health and movement contexts. They compare and contrast a range of actions that could be undertaken to enhance their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They apply and transfer movement concepts and strategies to new and challenging movement situations. They apply criteria to make judgments about and refine their own and others’ specialised movement skills and movement performances. They work collaboratively to design and apply solutions to movement challenges.

History

History Level Description

The Making of the Modern World and Australia

In Levels 9 and 10, students study the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918 and the modern world and Australia from 1918–present. It covers the period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked and thought, the era of nationalism and imperialism, and the colonisation of Australia which was part of the expansion...

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History Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events in chronological order to support analysis of the causes and effects of these events and identify the changes they brought about (VCHHC121)
  2. Analyse and evaluate the broad patterns of change over the period 1750–present (VCHHC122)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Analyse and corroborate sources and evaluate their accuracy, usefulness and reliability (VCHHC123)
  2. Analyse the different perspectives of people in the past and evaluate how these perspectives are influenced by significant events, ideas, location, beliefs and values (VCHHC124)
  3. Evaluate different historical interpretations and contested debates (VCHHC125)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and evaluate patterns of continuity and change in the development of the modern world and Australia (VCHHC126)
Cause and effect
  1. Analyse the long term causes, short term triggers and the intended and unintended effects of significant events and developments (VCHHC127)
Historical significance
  1. Evaluate the historical significance of an event, idea, individual or place (VCHHC128)

Historical Knowledge

The making of the modern world
Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914)

  1. Causes that led to the Industrial Revolution, and other conditions and ideas that influenced the industrialisation of Britain and of Australia (VCHHK129)
  2. Causes of population movements and settlement patterns during this period and the significant changes to the way of life of groups of people (VCHHK130)
  3. Different experiences and perspectives of individuals or groups and how ideas, beliefs and values changed during the significant events of the Industrial Revolution (VCHHK131)
  4. Significant effects of the Industrial Revolution, including global changes in landscapes, movements of people, development and influence of ideas, political and social reforms, and transport and communication (VCHHK132)
Australia and Asia

Students investigate the history of either Australia and/or an Asian society in the period 1750 – 1918.

  1. Key social, cultural, economic, and political features of one society at the start of the period (VCHHK133)
  2. Intended and unintended causes and effects of contact and extension of settlement of European power(s), including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCHHK134)
  3. Significant events and influencing ideas in the development of the society, including different perspectives of the events at the time and different historical interpretations and debates (VCHHK135)
  4. Patterns of continuity and change and their effects on influencing movements of people, ways of life and living conditions, political and legal institutions, and cultural expression around the turn of the twentieth century (VCHHK136)
  5. Different experiences and perspectives of non-Europeans and their perspectives on changes to society, significant events, ideas, beliefs and values (VCHHK137)
  6. Position of the society in relation to other nations in the world by 1918 including the effects of ideas and movements of people (VCHHK138)
The modern world and Australia
Australia at war (1914 – 1945): World War I

  1. Causes of World War I, the reasons why men enlisted to go to war, and how women contributed in the war effort (VCHHK139)
  2. Significant places where Australians fought and explore their perspectives and experiences in these places (VCHHK140)
  3. Significant events, turning points of the war and the nature of warfare (VCHHK141)
  4. Effects of World War I, with a particular emphasis on the changes and continuities brought to the Australian home front and society (VCHHK142)
  5. Significance of World War I to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the Britain, the USA and Asia (VCHHK143)
  6. Different historical interpretations and contested debates about World War I and the significance of Australian commemorations of the war (VCHHK144)
Australia at war (1914 – 1945): World War II

  1. Causes of World War II and the reasons why Australians enlisted to go to war (VCHHK145)
  2. Significant places where Australians fought and their perspectives and experiences in these places (VCHHK146)
  3. Significant events, turning points of World War II and the nature of warfare (VCHHK147)
  4. Effects of World War II, with a particular emphasis on the changes and continuities brought to the Australian home front and society (VCHHK148)
  5. Significance of World War II to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the Britain, the USA, Asia and United Nations (VCHHK149)
  6. Different historical interpretations and contested debates about World War II and the significance of Australian commemoration of war (VCHHK150)
Rights and freedoms (1945 – the present)

  1. Significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including Australia’s involvement in the development of the declaration (VCHHK151)
  2. Causes of the struggle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples for rights and freedoms before 1965 (VCHHK152)
  3. Effects of the US civil rights movement and its influence on Australia (VCHHK153)
  4. Significance of the following events in changing society: 1962 right to vote federally, 1967 Referendum, Reconciliation, Mabo decision, Bringing Them Home Report (the Stolen Generations), the Apology and the different perspectives of these events (VCHHK154)
  5. Effects of methods used by civil rights activists to achieve change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the role of one individual or group in the struggle (VCHHK155)
  6. Continuity and change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in securing and achieving civil rights and freedoms in Australia (VCHHK156)
The globalising world

Students investigate one major global influence that has shaped Australian society, including the development of the global influence during the twentieth century.

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Popular culture
  • The Environment movement
  • Migration experiences
  • Political Crisis

  1. Effects of significant post-World War II world events and developments on one major global influence that shaped change in Australian society (VCHHK157)
  2. Causes and developments of the major global influences on Australia (VCHHK158)
  3. Changing social, cultural, historical, economic, environmental, political and technological conditions on a major global influence in Australia (VCHHK159)
  4. The perspectives of people and different historical interpretations and debates from the period (VCHHK160)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students refer to significant events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to identify and evaluate the patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their significance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students evaluate the significance of events and analyse the developments from a range of perspectives. They evaluate the different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. They locate and select historical sources and identify their origin, purpose and content features. Students explain the context of these sources to identify motivations, values and attitudes. They compare and contrast historical sources and evaluate their accuracy, usefulness and reliability. Students analyse the different perspectives of people in the past and evaluate how these perspectives are influenced by the significant events, ideas, location, beliefs and values. They evaluate different historical interpretations and contested debates. Students construct and communicate an argument about the past using a range of reliable sources of evidence. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their arguments, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and they use consistent referencing of these sources.

Intercultural Capability

Intercultural Capability Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focus is on developing the knowledge, skills and understandings to engage in complex discussions about interrelationships within and between cultures. This includes the less tangible aspects of culture such as values, attitudes, roles, religious beliefs and ways of thinking.

The curriculum provides the opportunity for students to understand the importance of cultural collaboration in an interconnected world and how respecting diversity is important for community cohesion.

Intercultural Capability Content Descriptions

Cultural Practices

  1. Analyse the complex and dynamic interrelationships between and within cultures in a range of contexts and the impact of these interrelationships on their own and others cultural practices (VCICCB017)
  2. Analyse the ways in which intercultural relationships and experiences have contributed to the development of attitudes, beliefs and behaviours, and how they are manifested in various contexts (VCICCB018)

Cultural Diversity

  1. Identify and analyse the challenges and benefits of living and working in an interconnected and culturally diverse world (VCICCD019)
  2. Analyse the components of a cohesive society, and the challenges, benefits and consequences of maintaining or failing to maintain that cohesion (VCICCD020)

Intercultural Capability Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students critically analyse the complex and dynamic interrelationship between and within cultures and the challenges and benefits of living in an interconnected and culturally diverse world. They evaluate how intercultural relationships and experiences influence attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in different contexts.

Students analyse the components of a cohesive society, and the challenges, benefits and consequences of maintaining or failing to maintain that cohesion.

Mathematics

Mathematics Level Description

In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical argument and proof in establishing mathematical propositions. Students apply mental, written or technology-assisted forms of computation as appropriate, and routinely use estimation to validate or...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Real numbers
  1. Solve simple problems involving inverse proportion (VCMNA327)
Money and financial mathematics
  1. Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies (VCMNA328)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (VCMNA329)
  2. Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (VCMNA330)
  3. Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (VCMNA331)
  4. Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (VCMNA332)
  5. Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown and re-arrange formulas to solve for a particular term (VCMNA333)
  6. Implement algorithms using data structures in a general-purpose programming language (VCMNA334)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (VCMNA335)
  2. Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (VCMNA336)
  3. Solve simultaneous linear equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques including using digital technology (VCMNA337)
  4. Solve problems involving gradients of parallel and perpendicular lines (VCMNA338)
  5. Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratic, reciprocal, circle and exponential, using digital technology as appropriate (VCMNA339)
  6. Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (VCMNA340)
  7. Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (VCMNA341)
  8. Solve equations using systematic guess-check-and-refine with digital technology (VCMNA342)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (VCMMG343)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (VCMMG344)
  2. Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes (VCMMG345)
Pythagoras and trigonometry
  1. Solve right-angled triangle problems including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression (VCMMG346)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events. Investigate the concept of independence (VCMSP347)
  2. Use the language of ‘if ....then, ‘given’, ‘of’, ‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language (VCMSP348)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Determine quartiles and interquartile range and investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers on the interquartile range (VCMSP349)
  2. Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (VCMSP350)
  3. Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots and discuss the distribution of data (VCMSP351)
  4. Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (VCMSP352)
  5. Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data, including where the independent variable is time (VCMSP353)
  6. Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data (VCMSP354)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

Number and Algebra

Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.

Measurement and Geometry

Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular lines, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions.

Statistics and Probability

Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments.

Media Arts

Media Arts Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students refine and extend their understanding and use of structure, intent, character, settings, viewpoints and genre conventions in their compositions. As they use media technologies they extend the use of media elements such as time, space, sound, movement and lighting. They analyse the way in which audiences make meaning and how audiences interact with and share media artworks.

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Media Arts Content Descriptions

Explore and Represent Ideas

  1. Experiment with ideas and stories that manipulate media elements, and genre conventions to construct new and alternative viewpoints in images, sounds and text (VCAMAE040)
  2. Manipulate media representations to identify and examine social and cultural values and beliefs (VCAMAE041)

Media Arts Practices

  1. Develop and refine media production skills to integrate and shape the technical and symbolic elements in images, sounds and text to represent a story, purpose, meaning and style (VCAMAM042)
  2. Plan, structure and design media artworks for a range of purposes that challenge the expectations of specific audiences by particular use of media elements, technologies and production processes (VCAMAM043)

Present and Perform

  1. Plan, produce and distribute media artworks for a range of community, institutional contexts and different audiences, and consider social, ethical and regulatory issues (VCAMAP044)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse and evaluate how technical and symbolic elements are manipulated in media artworks to challenge representations framed by social beliefs and values in different community and institutional contexts (VCAMAR045)
  2. Analyse and evaluate a range of media artworks from contemporary and past times, including media artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, to explore differing viewpoints and enrich their media arts making (VCAMAR046)

Media Arts Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students analyse how values and alternative viewpoints are portrayed in the media artworks they make, interact with and distribute.

Students use intent, structure, setting, characters and genre conventions to evaluate how technical and symbolic elements are manipulated to make representations and meaning. They evaluate how social, institutional and ethical issues influence the making and use of media artworks.

Students communicate alternative viewpoints in media artworks for different community and institutional contexts. They apply design, production and distribution processes to the media artworks they make.

Music

Music Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, learning in Music involves students using their voices, instruments and technology as they make and respond to music independently and in small groups, and with their teachers and communities. They explore music as an art form through listening, composing and performing, developing a personal voice as composers, performers and audience.

Students continue to develop their...

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Music Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Improvise and arrange music, using aural awareness and technical skills to manipulate the elements of music to explore options for interpretation and developing music ideas (VCAMUE040)
  2. Manipulate combinations of the elements of music in a range of styles, using technology and notation to communicate music ideas and intentions (VCAMUE041)

Music Practices

  1. Create, practise and rehearse music to interpret a variety of performance repertoire with increasing technical and expressive skill and awareness of stylistic conventions (VCAMUM042)
  2. Plan, develop, and notate compositions with an understanding of style and convention (VCAMUM043)

Present and Perform

  1. Perform music applying techniques and expression to interpret the composer’s use of the elements of music and compositional devices (VCAMUP044)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Evaluate a range of performances and compositions to inform and refine their own music making (VCAMUR045)
  2. Analyse a range of music from contemporary and past times, including the music of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to explore differing viewpoints, enrich their music making, and develop understanding of music practice in local, national and international contexts (VCAMUR046)

Music Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students interpret, rehearse and perform solo and ensemble repertoire in a range of forms and styles. They demonstrate a developing personal voice and technical control, expression and stylistic understanding. They use general listening and specific aural skills to enhance their performances and use knowledge of the elements of music, style and notation to compose, document and share their music.

Students aurally and visually analyse works and performances of different styles. They evaluate the use of elements of music and defining characteristics from different musical styles. They use their understanding of music making in different cultures, times and places to inform and shape their interpretations, performances and compositions.

Personal and Social Capability

Personal and Social Capability Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focuses on analysing factors that influence respectful relationships in a range of diverse settings and the importance of empathy and respect for diversity in creating a cohesive society. Students are provided with opportunities to engage in activities that promote initiative, independence, interdependence and leadership. They evaluate their contribution to group tasks and suggest improvements to enable achievement of a team goal. Students explore the nature of conflict in a range of personal, local, national and global contexts. They evaluate a variety of strategies to prevent or resolve conflict.

Personal and Social Capability Content Descriptions

Self-Awareness and Management

Recognition and expression of emotions
  1. Evaluate emotional responses and the management of emotions in a range of contexts (VCPSCSE043)
Development of resilience
  1. Develop criteria to appraise personal qualities and use these to design strategies to plan for the future or address a challenge (VCPSCSE044)
  2. Analyse the significance of independence and individual responsibility in the completion of challenging tasks (VCPSCSE045)
  3. Evaluate behaviours and protective factors that contribute to the development of confidence, adaptability and self-reflection (VCPSCSE046)

Social Awareness and Management

Relationships and diversity
  1. Analyse how divergent values and beliefs contribute to different perspectives on social issues (VCPSCSO047)
  2. Acknowledge the importance of empathy and the acceptance of diversity for a cohesive community and reflect on the effectiveness of strategies for being respectful of diversity and human rights (VCPSCSO048)
  3. Investigate personal, social and cultural factors that influence the ability to experience positive and respectful relationships and explore the rights and responsibilities of individuals in relationships (VCPSCSO049)
Collaboration
  1. Evaluate own and others contribution to group tasks, critiquing roles including leadership and provide useful feedback to peers, evaluate task achievement and make recommendations for improvements in relation to team goals (VCPSCSO050)
  2. Develop specific skills and a variety of strategies to prevent or resolve conflict, and explore the nature of conflict resolution in a range of contexts (VCPSCSO051)

Personal and Social Capability Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students reflect critically on their emotional responses to challenging situations in a wide range of contexts. They demonstrate persistence, motivation, initiative and decision-making through completion of challenging tasks. They evaluate personal characteristics, strategies and sources of support used to cope with stressful situations/life challenges.

Students analyse the effects of actions that repress human rights and limit the expression of diverse views. They analyse factors that influence different types of relationships. They critique their ability to devise and enact strategies for working in diverse teams, drawing on the skills and contributions of team members to complete complex tasks. They develop and apply criteria to evaluate the outcomes of group tasks and make recommendations for improvements. They generate, apply and evaluate strategies to prevent and resolve conflicts in a range of contexts.

Science

Science Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focus is on explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students consider both classic and contemporary science contexts to explain the operation of systems at a range of scales. At a microscopic scale, they consider the atom as a system of protons, electrons and neutrons, and understand how this system can change through nuclear decay. They...

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (VCSSU114)
  2. Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (VCSSU115)
  3. The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (VCSSU116)
Biological sciences
  1. Multicellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment (VCSSU117)
  2. An animal’s response to a stimulus is coordinated by its central nervous system (brain and spinal cord); neurons transmit electrical impulses and are connected by synapses (VCSSU118)
  3. The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes (VCSSU119)
  4. The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence (VCSSU120)
  5. Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems (VCSSU121)
Chemical sciences
  1. All matter is made of atoms which are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms (VCSSU122)
  2. The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the periodic table (VCSSU123)
  3. Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed (VCSSU124)
  4. Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates; chemical reactions may be represented by balanced chemical equations (VCSSU125)
  5. Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (VCSSU126)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement (VCSSU127)
  2. Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere (VCSSU128)
  3. The Universe contains features including galaxies, stars and solar systems; the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin of the Universe (VCSSU129)
Physical sciences
  1. Electric circuits can be designed for diverse purposes using different components; the operation of circuits can be explained by the concepts of voltage and current (VCSSU130)
  2. The interaction of magnets can be explained by a field model; magnets are used in the generation of electricity and the operation of motors (VCSSU131)
  3. Energy flow in Earth’s atmosphere can be explained by the processes of heat transfer (VCSSU132)
  4. The description and explanation of the motion of objects involves the interaction of forces and the exchange of energy and can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (VCSSU133)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically, including identification of independent, dependent and controlled variables (VCSIS134)
Planning and conducting
  1. Independently plan, select and use appropriate investigation types, including fieldwork and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data, assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these investigation types (VCSIS135)
  2. Select and use appropriate equipment and technologies to systematically collect and record accurate and reliable data, and use repeat trials to improve accuracy, precision and reliability (VCSIS136)
Recording and processing
  1. Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys, models and formulas, to record and summarise data from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, to represent qualitative and quantitative patterns or relationships, and distinguish between discrete and continuous data (VCSIS137)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables, identifying inconsistencies in data and sources of uncertainty, and drawing conclusions that are consistent with evidence (VCSIS138)
  2. Use knowledge of scientific concepts to evaluate investigation conclusions, including assessing the approaches used to solve problems, critically analysing the validity of information obtained from primary and secondary sources, suggesting possible alternative explanations and describing specific ways to improve the quality of data (VCSIS139)
Communicating
  1. Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (VCSIS140)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students analyse how models and theories have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review. They predict how future applications of science and technology may affect people’s lives. They explain the concept of energy conservation and model energy transfer and transformation within systems. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to the interdependencies between individual components, energy transfers and flows of matter. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the Universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the role of DNA and genes in cell division and genetic inheritance. They apply geological timescales to elaborate their explanations of both natural selection and evolution. They explain how similarities in the chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds and their atomic structures are represented in the way the periodic table has been constructed. They compare the properties of a range of elements representative of the major groups and periods in the periodic table. They use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations...

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Visual Arts

Visual Arts Level Description

In Levels 9 and 10, students build on their awareness of how and why artists, craftspeople and designers realise their ideas through different visual arts practices. They refine their personal aesthetic through working and responding perceptively as an artist, craftsperson or audience. They identify and explain how artists and audiences interpret artworks through explorations of different viewpoints.

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Visual Arts Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Explore the visual arts practices and styles as inspiration to develop a personal style, explore, express ideas, concepts and themes in art works (VCAVAE040)
  2. Explore how artists manipulate materials, techniques, technologies and processes to develop and express their intentions in art works (VCAVAE041)

Visual Arts Practices

  1. Select and manipulate materials, techniques, and technologies and processes in a range of art forms to express ideas, concepts and themes (VCAVAV042)
  2. Conceptualise, plan and design art works that express ideas, concepts and artistic intentions (VCAVAV043)

Present and Perform

  1. Create, present, analyse and evaluate displays of artwork considering how ideas can be conveyed to an audience (VCAVAP044)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse and interpret artworks to explore the different forms of expression, intentions and viewpoints of artists and how they are viewed by audiences (VCAVAR045)
  2. Analyse, interpret and evaluate a range of visual artworks from different cultures, historical and contemporary contexts, including artworks by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to explore differing viewpoints (VCAVAR046)

Visual Arts Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students analyse and evaluate how artists communicate ideas and convey meaning in artworks.

Students identify the influences of other artists and analyse connections between techniques, processes and visual conventions in artworks to develop their own art practice. They select, and manipulate materials, techniques, processes, visual conventions and technologies to express ideas and viewpoints in their artworks.

Students analyse and evaluate artworks and exhibitions from different cultures, times and places, and discuss how ideas and beliefs are interpreted by audiences.

Visual Communication Design

Visual Communication Design Level Description

In levels 9 and 10, students build on their awareness of how designers communicate ideas with a specific purpose, to a targeted audience, using different visual communication design practices and viewpoints. They refine their personal aesthetic through their development of knowledge, understanding and skills in making and responding to visual communications.

Students critically reflect on the...

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Visual Communication Design Content Descriptions

Explore and Represent Ideas

  1. Develop and present visual communications that demonstrate the application of methods, materials, media, design elements and design principles that meet the requirements of a specific brief and target audience (VCAVCDE006)
  2. Generate, develop and refine visual communication presentations in response to the brief (VCAVCDE007)

Visual Communication Design Practices

  1. Use manual and digital drawing methods to create visual communications in the specific design fields of Environmental, Industrial and Communication Design (VCAVCDV008)

Present and Perform

  1. Develop a brief that identifies a specific audience and needs, and present visual communications that meet the brief (VCAVCDP009)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse and evaluate the factors that influence design decisions in a range of visual communications from different historical, social and cultural contexts, including presentations by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCAVCDR010)
  2. Analyse and evaluate the use of methods, media, materials, design elements and design principles in visual communications from different historical, social and cultural contexts, including presentations by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCAVCDR011)

Visual Communication Design Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10 students analyse and evaluate the visual communications they make and view, and how visual communications from different historical, social and cultural contexts communicate ideas and information.

Within visual communication fields, students develop briefs and visualise, generate and develop ideas in response to audience needs. They evaluate, reflect on, refine and justify their decisions and aesthetic choices.

Students demonstrate their use of visual communication design skills, techniques, conventions and processes in a range of design fields. They manipulate design elements and design principles, materials, methods, media and technologies to realise their concepts and ideas for specific purposes, audiences and needs.

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