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Civics and Citizenship

Civics and Citizenship Level Description

The Levels 7 and 8 curriculum provides a study of the Australian Constitution and how its features, principles and values shape Australia’s democracy. They explore the responsibilities and freedoms of citizens and how citizens can participate in Australia’s democracy. They look at how the rights of individuals are protected through the justice system, how laws are made and the types...

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Civics and Citizenship Content Descriptions

Government and Democracy

  1. Describe key features of government under the Australian Constitution, including the separation of powers, the Executive, the role of the Houses of Parliament, and the division of powers (VCCCG018)
  2. Discuss the freedoms that enable active participation in Australia's democracy within the bounds of law, including freedom of speech, association, assembly, religion and movement (VCCCG019)
  3. Explain how citizens can participate in Australia's democracy, including the use of the electoral system, contact with their elected representatives, use of lobby groups, interest groups and direct action (VCCCG020)
  4. Describe the process of constitutional change through a referendum (VCCCG021)

Laws and Citizens

  1. Explain how Australia’s legal system aims to provide justice, including through the rule of law, presumption of innocence, burden of proof, right to a fair trial and right to legal representation (VCCCL022)
  2. Compare how laws are made in Australia, including through parliaments (statutory law) and courts (common law), and explain different types of laws, including executive law (delegated law), criminal law, civil law and the place of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander customary law (VCCCL023)

Citizenship, Diversity and Identity

  1. Describe how Australia is a secular nation and a multi-faith society (VCCCC024)
  2. Identify how values can promote cohesion within Australian society, including the values of freedom, respect, inclusion, civility, responsibility, compassion, equality and a ‘fair go’ (VCCCC025)
  3. Explain how groups express their identities, including religious and cultural identity, and how this expression can influence their perceptions of others and others’ perception of them (VCCCC026)
  4. Examine how national identity can shape a sense of belonging and examine different perspectives about Australia’s national identity, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' perspectives (VCCCC027)

Civics and Citizenship Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain features of Australia’s system of government, and the purpose of the Constitution in Australia’s representative democracy. They analyse features of Australian democracy, and explain features that enable active participation. They explain how Australia’s legal system is based on the principle of justice, and describe the types of law and how laws are made. Students identify the importance of shared values, explain different points of view and explain the diverse nature of Australian society. They analyse issues about national identity in Australia and the factors that contribute to people’s sense of belonging. They identify ways they can be active and informed citizens, and take action, in different contexts.

Critical and Creative Thinking

Critical and Creative Thinking Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to analyse thinking and the selection and application of a range of techniques to support effective thinking. Students learn strategies to assist them synthesise their thinking. Students develop an understanding that flexibility in thinking is often required and that certainty in thinking can be influenced by a range of factors.

Critical and Creative Thinking Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Consider how to approach and use questions that have different elements, including factual, temporal and conceptual elements (VCCCTQ032)
  2. Suspend judgements temporarily and consider how preconceptions may limit ideas and alternatives (VCCCTQ033)
  3. Synthesise information from multiple sources and use lateral thinking techniques to draw parallels between known and new solutions and ideas when creating original proposals and artefacts (VCCCTQ034)

Reasoning

  1. Examine common reasoning errors including circular arguments and cause and effect fallacies (VCCCTR035)
  2. Investigate the difference between a description, an explanation and a correlation and scepticism about cause and effect (VCCCTR036)
  3. Investigate when counter examples might be used in expressing a point of view (VCCCTR037)
  4. Consider how to settle matters of fact and matters of value and the degree of confidence in the conclusions (VCCCTR038)
  5. Examine how to select appropriate criteria and how criteria are used in clarifying and challenging arguments and ideas (VCCCTR039)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Consider a range of strategies to represent ideas and explain and justify thinking processes to others (VCCCTM040)
  2. Examine a range of learning strategies and how to select strategies that best meet the requirements of a task (VCCCTM041)
  3. Consider how problems can be segmented into discrete stages, new knowledge synthesised during problem-solving and criteria used to assess emerging ideas and proposals (VCCCTM042)

Critical and Creative Thinking Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students prioritise the elements of a question and justify their selection. Students demonstrate flexibility in thinking by using a range of techniques in order to repurpose existing ideas or solutions to meet needs in new contexts.

Students explain different ways to settle matters of fact and matters of value and issues concerned with these. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test the strength of arguments.

Students use a range of strategies to represent ideas and explain and justify thinking processes to others. They evaluate the effectiveness of a range of learning strategies and select strategies that best meet the requirements of a task. Students independently segment problems into discrete stages, synthesise new knowledge at intermediate stages during problem-solving and develop and apply criteria to assess ideas, proposals and emerging thinking.

Dance

Dance Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students make and respond to dance, independently, with their peers, teachers and communities. They explore dance forms and styles through choreography and performance and by exploring ideas and intentions, forms and elements.

Working within their own body capabilities, students use safe dance practice to build on their awareness of the body’s movement possibilities...

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Dance Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Use safe dance practice, elements of dance, body actions and improvisations to explore ways of making literal movements into abstract movements (VCADAE033)
  2. Develop their choreographic intent by applying the elements of dance to select and organise movement (VCADAE034)

Dance Practices

  1. Practise and refine technical and expressive skills in style-specific techniques (VCADAD035)
  2. Structure dances using choreographic devices and form (VCADAD036)

Present and Perform

  1. Rehearse and perform focusing on technical and expressive skills appropriate to style and/or choreographic intent (VCADAP037)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse how choreographers use elements of dance and production elements to communicate intent (VCADAR038)
  2. Identify and connect specific features of dance from different times and locations, including the dance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, to explore viewpoints and enrich their dance-making (VCADAR039)

Dance Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8 students choreograph and perform dances to communicate ideas and intentions. They improvise movement and select and organise the elements of dance, choreographic devices and form to communicate choreographic intent. Students learn, rehearse and perform dances, demonstrating technical and expressive skills appropriate to the dance style and safe dance practice.

Students identify and analyse the elements of dance, choreographic devices and production elements of dances in different styles and apply this knowledge to dances they make and perform. They evaluate how they and other dance practitioners from different cultures, times and locations, communicate ideas and intentions through dance.

Design and Technologies

Design and Technologies Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students investigate and select from a range of technologies. They consider the ways characteristics and properties of technologies can be combined to create designed solutions to problems for individuals and the community, considering society and ethics, and economic, environmental and social sustainability factors. Students use creativity, innovation and enterprise skills...

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Design and Technologies Content Descriptions

Technologies and Society

  1. Examine and prioritise competing factors including social, ethical, economic and sustainability considerations in the development of technologies and designed solutions to meet community needs for preferred futures (VCDSTS043)
  2. Investigate the ways in which designed solutions evolve locally, nationally, regionally and globally through the creativity, innovation and enterprise of individuals and groups (VCDSTS044)

Technologies Contexts

Engineering principles and systems
  1. Analyse how motion, force and energy are used to manipulate and control electromechanical systems when creating simple, engineered solutions (VCDSTC045)
Food and fibre production
  1. Analyse how food and fibre are produced when creating managed environments and how these can become more sustainable (VCDSTC046)
Food specialisations
  1. Analyse how characteristics and properties of food determine preparation techniques and presentation when creating solutions for healthy eating (VCDSTC047)
Materials and technologies specialisations
  1. Analyse ways to create designed solutions through selecting and combining characteristics and properties of materials, systems, components, tools and equipment (VCDSTC048)

Creating Designed Solutions

Investigating
  1. Critique needs or opportunities for designing and investigate, analyse and select from a range of materials, components, tools, equipment and processes to develop design ideas (VCDSCD049)
Generating
  1. Generate, develop and test design ideas, plans and processes using appropriate technical terms and technologies including graphical representation techniques (VCDSCD050)
Producing
  1. Effectively and safely use a broad range of materials, components, tools, equipment and techniques to produce designed solutions (VCDSCD051)
Evaluating
  1. Independently develop criteria for success to evaluate design ideas, processes and solutions and their sustainability (VCDSCD052)
Planning and managing
  1. Use project management processes to coordinate production of designed solutions (VCDSCD053)

Design and Technologies Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8 students explain factors that influence the design of solutions to meet present and future needs. They explain the contribution of design and technology innovations and enterprise to society. Students explain how the features of technologies impact on designed solutions and influence design decisions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts.

Students create designed solutions for each of the prescribed technologies contexts based on an evaluation of needs or opportunities. They develop criteria for success, including sustainability considerations, and use these to judge the suitability of their ideas and designed solutions and processes. They create and adapt design ideas, make considered decisions and communicate to different audiences using appropriate technical terms and a range of technologies and graphical representation techniques. Students apply project management skills to document and use project plans to manage production processes. They independently and safely produce effective designed solutions for the intended purpose.

Digital Technologies

Digital Technologies Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students analyse the properties of networked systems and their suitability and use for the transmission of data types. They acquire, analyse, validate and evaluate various types of data, and appreciate the complexities of storing and transmitting that data in digital systems.

Students use structured data to model objects and events that shape the communities they actively...

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Digital Technologies Content Descriptions

Digital Systems

  1. Investigate how data are transmitted and secured in wired, wireless and mobile networks (VCDTDS035)

Data and Information

  1. Investigate how digital systems represent text, image and sound data in binary (VCDTDI036)
  2. Acquire data from a range of sources and evaluate their authenticity, accuracy and timeliness (VCDTDI037)
  3. Analyse and visualise data using a range of software to create information, and use structured data to model objects or events (VCDTDI038)
  4. Manage, create and communicate interactive ideas, information and projects collaboratively online, taking safety and social contexts into account (VCDTDI039)

Creating Digital Solutions

  1. Define and decompose real-world problems taking into account functional requirements and sustainability (economic, environmental, social), technical and usability constraints (VCDTCD040)
  2. Design the user experience of a digital system, generating, evaluating and communicating alternative designs (VCDTCD041)
  3. Design algorithms represented diagrammatically and in English, and trace algorithms to predict output for a given input and to identify errors (VCDTCD042)
  4. Develop and modify programs with user interfaces involving branching, iteration and functions using a general-purpose programming language (VCDTCD043)
  5. Evaluate how well student-developed solutions and existing information systems meet needs, are innovative and take account of future risks and sustainability (VCDTCD044)

Digital Technologies Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students distinguish between different types of networks and their suitability in meeting defined purposes.

Students explain how text, image and sound data can be represented and secured in digital systems and presented using digital systems. They analyse and evaluate data from a range of sources to model solutions and create information. They manage the collaborative creation of interactive ideas, information and projects and use appropriate codes of conduct when communicating online.

Students define and decompose problems in terms of functional requirements and constraints. They design user experiences and algorithms incorporating branching and iterations, and develop, test, and modify digital solutions. Students evaluate information systems and their solutions in terms of meeting needs, innovation and sustainability.

Drama

Drama Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students make and respond to drama independently, and with their peers, teachers and communities.

Students build on their understanding of role, character and relationships. They use voice and movement to sustain character and situation. They use focus, tension, space and time to enhance drama. They incorporate language and ideas and use devices such as dramatic symbol...

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Drama Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Combine the elements of drama in devised and scripted drama to explore and develop issues, ideas and themes (VCADRE033)
  2. Develop roles and characters consistent with situation, dramatic forms and performance styles to convey status, relationships and intentions (VCADRE034)

Drama Practices

  1. Plan, structure and rehearse drama, exploring ways to communicate and refine dramatic meaning (VCADRD035)
  2. Develop and refine expressive skills in voice and movement to communicate ideas and dramatic action in different performance styles and conventions (VCADRD036)

Present and Perform

  1. Perform devised and scripted drama using a range of performance styles, maintaining commitment to role and applying stagecraft (VCADRP037)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse how the elements of drama have been combined in devised and scripted drama to convey different forms, performance styles and dramatic meaning (VCADRR038)
  2. Identify and connect specific features and purposes of drama from contemporary and past times, including the drama of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to explore viewpoints and enrich their drama making (VCADRR039)

Drama Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students devise, interpret and perform drama. They manipulate the elements of drama, narrative and structure to control and communicate meaning. They apply different performance styles and conventions to convey status, relationships and intentions. They use performance skills, stagecraft and design elements to shape and focus relationships with an audience.

Students identify and analyse how the elements of drama are used, combined and manipulated in different styles, and apply this knowledge in drama they make and perform. They evaluate how they and drama practitioners from different cultures, times and locations communicate meaning and intent through drama.

Economics and Business

Economics and Business Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students consider what it means to be a consumer, a worker and a producer in the market and the relationships between, and interdependence of, these groups. The ways markets work within Australia to set prices, the participants in the market system and the ways these participants may influence the market’s operation are explored.

Students investigate how businesses...

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Economics and Business Content Descriptions

Resource Allocation and Making Choices

  1. Examine the ways consumers and producers respond to and influence each other in the market, particularly through price mechanism (VCEBR011)
  2. Identify why and how markets may be influenced by government (VCEBR012)

Consumer and Financial Literacy

  1. Investigate the rights and responsibilities of consumers and businesses in terms of financial and economic decision making (VCEBC013)
  2. Explain the reasons why and the ways in which individuals and businesses set, prioritise and plan to achieve financial and organisational goals (VCEBC014)

The Business Environment

  1. Explore and observe the characteristics of entrepreneurs and successful businesses (VCEBB015)

Work and Work Futures

  1. Consider the ways in which work can contribute to individual and societal wellbeing (VCEBW016)
  2. Describe the nature and investigate the influences on the work environment (VCEBW017)

Enterprising Behaviours and Capabilities

  1. Explain the role of enterprising behaviours and capabilities in the work environment and explore how individuals and businesses can use them (VCEBN018)

Economic and Business Reasoning and Interpretation

  1. Identify relationships and trends, and generate a range of alternatives for an economic or business issue or event, evaluating the potential costs and benefits of each alternative and the consequences of proposed actions (VCEBE019)

Economics and Business Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students describe the interdependence of consumers and producers in the market and explain how markets operate to set prices and why governments may influence the market’s operation. They explain the rights and responsibilities of consumers and businesses when making economics and business decisions. Students explain why and how individuals and businesses set, prioritise and plan for financial and organisational goals. They describe the characteristics of successful businesses, the way these businesses use enterprising behaviours and capabilities, and explain how entrepreneurial individuals can contribute to this success. Students discuss how work contributes to societal wellbeing and describe the influences on the work environment. They identify trends and relationships and propose alternative responses to an economics and/or business issue or event. They evaluate the costs and benefits of each alternative response and identify the effects and potential consequences of these actions.

English

English Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students interact with peers, teachers, individuals, groups and community members in a range of face-to-face and online/virtual environments. They experience learning in both familiar and unfamiliar contexts that relate to the school curriculum, local community, regional and global contexts.

Students engage with a variety of texts for enjoyment. They listen to, read, view...

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English Content Descriptions

Reading and Viewing

Language
Language for interaction
  1. Understand how rhetorical devices are used to persuade and how different layers of meaning are developed through the use of metaphor, irony and parody (VCELA397)
Text structure and organisation
  1. Analyse how the text structures and language features of persuasive texts, including media texts, vary according to the medium and mode of communication (VCELA398)
  2. Understand how cohesion in texts is improved by strengthening the internal structure of paragraphs through the use of examples, quotations and substantiation of claims (VCELA399)
Expressing and developing ideas
  1. Analyse and examine how effective authors control and use a variety of clause structures, including clauses embedded within the structure of a noun group/phrase or clause (VCELA400)
  2. Recognise that vocabulary choices contribute to the specificity, abstraction and style of texts (VCELA401)
  3. Investigate how visual and multimodal texts allude to or draw on other texts or images to enhance and layer meaning (VCELA402)
Literature
Literature and context
  1. Explore the ways that ideas and viewpoints in literary texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts may reflect or challenge the values of individuals and groups (VCELT403)
  2. Explore the interconnectedness of Country and Place, People, Identity and Culture in texts including those by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander authors (VCELT404)
Responding to literature
  1. Understand and explain how combinations of words and images in texts are used to represent particular groups in society, and how texts position readers in relation to those groups (VCELT405)
  2. Recognise and explain differing viewpoints about the world, cultures, individual people and concerns represented in texts (VCELT406)
Examining literature
  1. Recognise, explain and analyse the ways literary texts draw on readers’ knowledge of other texts and enable new understanding and appreciation of aesthetic qualities (VCELT407)
  2. Identify and evaluate devices that create tone in literary texts, including humour, wordplay, innuendo and parody (VCELT408)
  3. Interpret and analyse language choices, including sentence patterns, dialogue, imagery and other language features, in short stories, literary essays and plays (VCELT409)
Literacy
Texts in context
  1. Analyse and explain how language has evolved over time and how technology and the media have influenced language use and forms of communication (VCELY410)
Interpreting, analysing, evaluating
  1. Apply increasing knowledge of vocabulary, text structures and language features to understand the content of texts (VCELY411)
  2. Use comprehension strategies to interpret and evaluate texts by reflecting on the validity of content and the credibility of sources, including finding evidence in the text for the author’s point of view (VCELY412)
  3. Analyse and evaluate the ways that text structures and language features vary according to the purpose of the text and the ways that referenced sources add authority to a text (VCELY413)

Writing

Language
Text structure and organisation
  1. Understand how coherence is created in complex texts through devices like lexical cohesion, ellipsis, grammatical theme and text connectives (VCELA414)
  2. Understand the use of punctuation conventions, including colons, semicolons, dashes and brackets in formal and informal texts (VCELA415)
Expressing and developing ideas
  1. Understand the effect of nominalisation in the writing of informative and persuasive texts (VCELA416)
Phonics and word knowledge
  1. Understand how to apply learned knowledge consistently in order to spell accurately and to learn new words including nominalisations (VCELA417)
Literature
Creating literature
  1. Experiment with particular language features drawn from different types of texts, including combinations of language and visual choices to create new texts (VCELT418)
  2. Create literary texts that draw upon text structures and language features of other texts for particular purposes and effects (VCELT419)
Literacy
Creating texts
  1. Create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that raise issues, report events and advance opinions, using deliberate language and textual choices, and including digital elements as appropriate (VCELY420)
  2. Experiment with text structures and language features to refine and clarify ideas to improve the effectiveness of own texts (VCELY421)
  3. Use a range of software, including word processing programs, to create, edit and publish texts imaginatively (VCELY422)

Speaking and Listening

Language
Language variation and change
  1. Understand the influence and impact that the English language has had on other languages or dialects and how English has been influenced in return (VCELA423)
Language for interaction
  1. Understand how conventions of speech adopted by communities influence the identities of people in those communities (VCELA424)
Literature
Responding to literature
  1. Share, reflect on, clarify and evaluate opinions and arguments about aspects of literary texts (VCELT425)
Literacy
Interacting with others
  1. Interpret the stated and implied meanings in spoken texts, and use interaction skills including voice and language conventions to discuss evidence that supports or challenges different perspectives (VCELY426)
  2. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content, including multimodal elements, to reflect a diversity of viewpoints, using voice and language conventions to suit different situations, modulating voice and incorporating elements for specific effects (VCELY427)

English Achievement Standard

Reading and Viewing

By the end of Level 8, students understand how the selection of text structures is influenced by the selection of language mode and how this varies for different purposes and audiences. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to represent different ideas and issues in texts. They interpret texts, questioning the reliability of sources of ideas and information. They select evidence from the text to show how events, situations and people can be represented from different viewpoints.

Writing

Students understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. When creating and editing texts for specific effects, they take into account intended purposes and the needs and interests of audiences. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary for effect and use accurate spelling and punctuation.

Speaking and Listening

Students listen for and identify different emphases in texts, using that understanding to elaborate upon discussions. They understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language patterns for effect.

Ethical Capability

Ethical Capability Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understandings to explore the tensions related to ethical concepts and decision making. Students extend their exploration of the two major ways to approach ethical deliberation – thinking about consequences and thinking about duties, including the extent of ethical obligation. Students develop an understanding that ethical problems may not be resolved in a straightforward way.

Ethical Capability Content Descriptions

Understanding Concepts

  1. Explore the contested meaning of concepts including freedom, justice, and rights and responsibilities, and the extent they are and should be valued by different individuals and groups (VCECU014)
  2. Investigate why ethical principles may differ between people and groups, considering the influence of cultural norms, religion, world views and philosophical thought (VCECU015)
  3. Investigate criteria for determining the relative importance of matters of ethical concern (VCECU016)

Decision Making and Actions

  1. Explore the extent of ethical obligation and the implications for thinking about consequences and duties in decision-making and action (VCECD017)
  2. Discuss the role of context and experience in ethical decision-making and actions (VCECD018)

Ethical Capability Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain different ways ethical concepts are represented and analyse their value to society, identifying areas of contestability. They articulate how criteria can be applied to determine the importance of ethical concerns.

Students analyse the differences in principles between people and groups. They explain different views on the extent of ethical obligation and analyse their implications for the consequences of and duties involved in ethical decision-making and action. They analyse the role of context and experience in ethical decision-making and action.

Geography

Geography Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students examine the processes that influence the characteristics of places. They consider spatial distributions and patterns and their implications and consider interconnections between and within places and changes resulting from these. This further develops their understanding of geographical concepts, including place, space and interconnection.

Students’ conceptual...

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Geography Content Descriptions

Geographical Concepts and Skills

Place, space and interconnection
  1. Explain processes that influence the characteristics of places (VCGGC099)
  2. Identify, analyse and explain spatial distributions and patterns and identify and explain their implications (VCGGC100)
  3. Identify, analyse and explain interconnections within places and between places and identify and explain changes resulting from these interconnections (VCGGC101)
Data and information
  1. Collect and record relevant geographical data and information from useful primary and secondary sources, using ethical protocols (VCGGC102)
  2. Select and represent data and information in different forms, including by constructing appropriate maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions, using digital and spatial technologies as appropriate (VCGGC103)
  3. Analyse maps and other geographical data and information using digital and spatial technologies as appropriate, to develop identifications, descriptions, explanations and conclusions that use geographical terminology (VCGGC104)

Geographical Knowledge

Water in the world
  1. Classification of environmental resources and the forms that water takes as a resource (VCGGK105)
  2. Ways that flows of water connect places as they move through the environment and the ways this affects places (VCGGK106)
  3. The quantity and variability of Australia’s water resources compared with those in other continents and how water balance can be used to explain these differences (VCGGK107)
  4. Nature of water scarcity and the role of humans in creating and overcoming it, including studies drawn from Australia and West Asia and/or North Africa (VCGGK108)
  5. The spiritual, economic, cultural and aesthetic value of water for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and peoples of the Asia region, that influence the significance of places (VCGGK109)
  6. Causes of an atmospheric or hydrological hazard and its impacts on places, and human responses to it to minimise harmful effects on places in the future (VCGGK110)
Place and liveability
  1. Factors that influence the decisions people make about where to live and their perceptions of the liveability of places (VCGGK111)
  2. Influence of accessibility to services and facilities; and environmental quality, on the liveability of places (VCGGK112)
  3. Environmental, economic and social measures used to evaluate places for their liveability, comparing two different places (VCGGK113)
  4. Influence of social connectedness and community identity on the liveability of places (VCGGK114)
  5. Strategies used to enhance the liveability of places, especially for young people, including examples from Australia and Europe (VCGGK115)
Landforms and landscapes
  1. Different types of landscapes and their distinctive landform features (VCGGK116)
  2. Geomorphic processes that produce landforms, including a case study of at least one landform (VCGGK117)
  3. The differences in at least one landform in Australia compared to other places and the geomorphic processes involved (VCGGK118)
  4. Human causes of landscape degradation, the effects on landscape quality and the implications for places (VCGGK119)
  5. Spiritual, cultural and aesthetic value of landscapes and landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, that influence the significance of places, and ways of protecting significant landscapes (VCGGK120)
  6. Causes of a geomorphological hazard and its impacts on places and human responses to it to minimise harmful effects on places in the future (VCGGK121)
Changing nations
  1. The causes and consequences of urbanisation, drawing on a study from Indonesia (VCGGK122)
  2. The causes and consequences of urban concentration and urban settlement patterns between Australia and the United States of America and reasons for these similarities and differences (VCGGK123)
  3. The reasons for and effects of international migration to Australia (VCGGK124)
  4. The reasons for and effects of internal migration in Australia and China (VCGGK125)
  5. The challenges of managing and planning Australia’s urban future (VCGGK126)

Geography Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain processes that influence the characteristics of places. They identify, analyse and explain interconnections and spatial characteristics and identity and explain their implications.

They compare strategies for a geographical challenge, taking into account a range of factors and predict the likely outcomes.

They ethically collect, record and select relevant geographical data and information from useful sources. They select and represent data and information in a range of appropriate forms including maps at different scales that conform to cartographic conventions. They analyse maps and other geographical data and information, and use geographical terminology, to develop identifications, descriptions, explanations and conclusions. They use digital and spatial technologies to represent and analyse data and information.

Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education Level Description

The Level 7 and 8 curriculum expands students’ knowledge, understanding and skills to help them achieve successful outcomes in classroom, leisure, social, movement and online situations. Students learn how to take positive action to enhance their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They do this as they examine the nature of their relationships and other factors that influence people...

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Health and Physical Education Content Descriptions

Personal, Social and Community Health

Being healthy, safe and active
  1. Investigate the impact of transition and change on identities (VCHPEP123)
  2. Evaluate strategies to manage personal, physical and social changes that occur as they grow older (VCHPEP124)
  3. Examine barriers to seeking support and evaluate strategies to overcome these (VCHPEP125)
  4. Investigate and select strategies to promote health, safety and wellbeing (VCHPEP126)
Communicating and interacting for health and wellbeing
  1. Investigate the benefits of relationships and examine their impact on their own and others’ health and wellbeing (VCHPEP127)
  2. Analyse factors that influence emotions, and develop strategies to demonstrate empathy and sensitivity (VCHPEP128)
  3. Develop skills to evaluate health information and express health concerns (VCHPEP129)
Contributing to healthy and active communities
  1. Plan and use strategies and resources to enhance the health, safety and wellbeing of their communities (VCHPEP130)
  2. Plan and implement strategies for connecting to natural and built environments to promote the health and wellbeing of their communities (VCHPEP131)
  3. Examine the benefits to individuals and communities of valuing diversity and promoting inclusivity (VCHPEP132)

Movement and Physical Activity

Moving the body
  1. Use feedback to improve body control and coordination when performing specialised movement skills (VCHPEM133)
  2. Compose and perform movement sequences for specific purposes in a variety of contexts (VCHPEM134)
  3. Practise, apply and transfer movement concepts and strategies (VCHPEM135)
Understanding movement
  1. Participate in physical activities that develop health-related and skill-related fitness components, and create and monitor personal fitness plans (VCHPEM136)
  2. Demonstrate and explain how the elements of effort, space, time, objects and people can enhance performance (VCHPEM137)
  3. Participate in and investigate the cultural and historical significance of a range of physical activities (VCHPEM138)
Learning through movement
  1. Practise and apply personal and social skills when undertaking a range of roles in physical activities (VCHPEM139)
  2. Evaluate and justify reasons for decisions and choices of action when solving movement challenges (VCHPEM140)
  3. Modify rules and scoring systems to allow for fair play, safety and inclusive participation (VCHPEM141)

Health and Physical Education Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students investigate strategies and resources to manage changes and transitions and their impact on identities. Students evaluate the benefits of relationships on wellbeing and respecting diversity. They analyse factors that influence emotional responses. They gather and analyse health information. They investigate strategies that enhance their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing. They investigate and apply movement concepts and strategies to achieve movement and fitness outcomes. They examine the cultural and historical significance of physical activities and examine how connecting to the environment can enhance health and wellbeing.

Students explain personal and social skills required to establish and maintain respectful relationships and promote fair play and inclusivity. They justify actions that promote their own and others’ health, safety and wellbeing at home, at school and in the community. Students demonstrate control and accuracy when performing specialised movement skills. They apply and refine movement concepts and strategies to suit different movement situations. They apply the elements of movement to compose and perform movement sequences.

History

History Level Description

The Ancient World to the Modern World

In Levels 7 and 8, students study history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE). It also covers the period from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750. The Ancient period was defined by the development...

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History Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events in chronological order to analyse the causes and effects and identify continuities and changes (VCHHC097)
  2. Describe and explain the broad patterns of change over the period from the Ancient to the Modern World (VCHHC098)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Analyse and corroborate sources and ask questions about their accuracy, usefulness and reliability (VCHHC099)
  2. Analyse the different perspectives of people in the past (VCHHC100)
  3. Explain different historical interpretations and contested debates about the past (VCHHC101)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and explain patterns of continuity and change in society to the way of life (VCHHC102)
Cause and effect
  1. Analyse the causes and effects of significant events that caused change and/or a decline over the period (VCHHC103)
Historical significance
  1. Evaluate the role and achievement of a significant individual, development and/or cultural achievement that led to progress (VCHHC104)

Historical Knowledge

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures
  1. How physical or geographical features influenced the development of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ communities, foundational stories and land management practices (VCHHK105)
  2. The significant beliefs, values and practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures including trade with other communities, causes and effects of warfare, and death and funerary customs (VCHHK106)
  3. The nature of sources of evidence about ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s ancient past, such as the use of resources (VCHHK107)
  4. The importance of conserving the remains of the ancient past, including the heritage, culture and artefacts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCHHK108)
Ancient world and early civilisations – 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE)

Europe and the Mediterranean world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Egypt
  • Greece
  • Rome

The Asia-Pacific world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • India
  • China
  1. How physical features influenced the development of the civilisation (VCHHK109)
  2. Changes in society and the perspectives of key groups affected by change including the influence of law and religion (VCHHK110)
  3. Significant beliefs, values and practices with a particular emphasis on changes to everyday life, cause and effect of warfare, and perspectives of death and funerary customs (VCHHK111)
  4. Causes and effects of contacts and conflicts with other societies and/or peoples, resulting in developments such as expansion of trade, colonisation and war, and spread of beliefs (VCHHK112)
  5. The role and achievements of a significant individual in an ancient society (VCHHK113)
  6. The different methods and sources used by historians and archaeologists to investigate history and/or a historical mystery (VCHHK114)
  7. The significance and importance of conserving the remains and heritage of the past (VCHHK115)
Middle Ages and early exploration

Europe and the Mediterranean world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • The Vikings (c.790 – c.1066)
  • Medieval Europe (c.590 – c.1500)
  • The Ottoman Empire (c.1299 – c.1683)

The Asia-Pacific world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Angkor/Khmer Empire (c.802 – c.1431)
  • Mongol Expansion (c.1206 – c.1368)
  • Japan under the Shoguns (c.794 – 1867)
  • The Polynesian expansion across the Pacific (c.700 – 1756)

Expanding Contacts: Discovery and Exploration

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Renaissance Italy (c.1400 – c.1600)
  • The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c.1492 – c.1572)
  1. The significant social, cultural, economic, environmental and political changes and continuities in the way of life and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (VCHHK116)
  2. Significant causes and effects of developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the concentration and/or expansion of wealth and power (VCHHK117)
  3. Perspectives of subject peoples and their interactions with power and/or authority of others (VCHHK118)
  4. The role and achievements of a significant individual and/or group (VCHHK119)
  5. One significant challenge and one development faced by the society that caused progress or decline (VCHHK120)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students identify and explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments. They identify the motives and actions of people at the time. Students evaluate the significance of individuals and groups and how they were influenced by the beliefs and values of their society. They evaluate different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework with reference to periods of time. They locate and select historical sources and identify their origin, content features and purpose. Students explain the historical context of these sources. They compare and contrast historical sources and ask questions about their accuracy, usefulness and reliability. Students analyse the different perspectives of people in the past using sources. They explain different historical interpretations and contested debates about the past. Students construct an explanation using sources of evidence to support the analysis. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

Intercultural Capability

Intercultural Capability Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focus is on developing the knowledge, skills and understandings to reflect on how cultural practices and beliefs contributes to individual, group and national identities. This includes religious beliefs, traditional celebrations and customs, social relationships, gender roles, daily routines, work and leisure activities and language.

The curriculum provides the opportunity for students to explore the dynamic nature of culture. They reflect on the importance of valuing and celebrating cultural diversity.

Intercultural Capability Content Descriptions

Cultural Practices

  1. Analyse the dynamic nature of own and others cultural practices in a range of contexts (VCICCB013)
  2. Examine how various cultural groups are represented, by whom they are represented, and comment on the purpose and effect of these representations (VCICCB014)

Cultural Diversity

  1. Identify the challenges and benefits of living and working in a culturally diverse society (VCICCD015)
  2. Evaluate the ways in which the community demonstrates the value it places on cultural diversity, and why this valuing of cultural diversity is important to the community (VCICCD016)

Intercultural Capability Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain how cultural practices may change over time in a range of contexts. They understand how cultural groups can be represented, and comment on the effects of these representations.

Students understand the challenges and benefits of living and working in culturally diverse communities.

Mathematics

Mathematics Level Description

In Level 8, students consolidate their proficiency with the four arithmetic operations, and combinations of these, for general computation involving natural numbers, integers and rational numbers, with and without the use of technology. They represent these numbers on the real number line. They extend the use of indices and develop the index laws using number examples. Students investigate the...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Number and place value
  1. Use index notation with numbers to establish the index laws with positive integral indices and the zero index (VCMNA272)
  2. Carry out the four operations with rational numbers and integers, using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies and make estimates for these computations (VCMNA273)
Real numbers
  1. Investigate terminating and recurring decimals (VCMNA274)
  2. Investigate the concept of irrational numbers, including π (VCMNA275)
  3. Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases and decreases and percentage error, with and without digital technologies (VCMNA276)
  4. Solve a range of problems involving rates and ratios, including distance-time problems for travel at a constant speed, with and without digital technologies (VCMNA277)
Money and financial mathematics
  1. Solve problems involving profit and loss, with and without digital technologies (VCMNA278)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions (VCMNA279)
  2. Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors (VCMNA280)
  3. Simplify algebraic expressions involving the four operations (VCMNA281)
  4. Use algorithms and related testing procedures to identify and correct errors (VCMNA282)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with and without the use of digital technologies (VCMNA283)
  2. Solve linear equations using algebraic and graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution (VCMNA284)
  3. Plot graphs of non-linear real life data with and without the use of digital technologies, and interpret and analyse these graphs (VCMNA285)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume and convert from one unit to another (VCMMG286)
  2. Find perimeters and areas of parallelograms, trapeziums, rhombuses and kites (VCMMG287)
  3. Investigate the relationship between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius and diameter. Use formulas to solve problems involving determining radius, diameter, circumference and area from each other (VCMMG288)
  4. Develop the formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume (VCMMG289)
  5. Solve problems involving duration, including using 12- and 24-hour time within a single time zone (VCMMG290)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Define congruence of plane shapes using transformations and use transformations of congruent shapes to produce regular patterns in the plane including tessellations with and without the use of digital technology (VCMMG291)
  2. Develop the conditions for congruence of triangles (VCMMG292)
  3. Establish properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles and angle properties, and solve related numerical problems using reasoning (VCMMG293)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems (VCMSP294)
  2. Describe events using language of 'at least', exclusive 'or' (A or B but not both), inclusive 'or' (A or B or both) and 'and' (VCMSP295)
  3. Represent events in two-way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems (VCMSP296)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Distinguish between a population and a sample and investigate techniques for collecting data, including census, sampling and observation (VCMSP297)
  2. Explore the practicalities and implications of obtaining data through sampling using a variety of investigative processes (VCMSP298)
  3. Explore the variation of means and proportions of random samples drawn from the same population (VCMSP299)
  4. Investigate the effect of individual data values including outliers, on the range, mean and median (VCMSP300)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

Number and Algebra

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.

Measurement and Geometry

Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes.

Statistics and Probability

Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

Media Arts

Media Arts Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students build on their understanding of structure, intent, character, settings, viewpoints and genre conventions in their media artworks.

Students extend use of media technologies and their understanding of story principles and media elements, such as the use of time, space, sound, movement, colour and lighting. They examine the ways in which audiences interpret meaning...

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Media Arts Content Descriptions

Explore and Represent Ideas

  1. Experiment with the organisation of ideas to structure stories through settings, genre conventions and viewpoints, in images, sounds and text (VCAMAE033)
  2. Develop media representations to show familiar or shared social and cultural values and beliefs (VCAMAE034)

Media Arts Practices

  1. Develop and refine media production skills using the technical and symbolic elements of images, sounds and text to represent a specific story, purpose and meaning (VCAMAM035)
  2. Plan, structure and design media artworks for a range of purposes that engage audiences using media elements, technologies and production processes (VCAMAM036)

Present and Perform

  1. Present media artworks within different community and institutional contexts for different audiences, with consideration of ethical and regulatory issues (VCAMAP037)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse how technical and symbolic elements are used in media artworks to create representations influenced by genre and the values and viewpoints of particular audiences (VCAMAR038)
  2. Identify specific features and purposes of media artworks from contemporary and past times, including media artworks of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, to explore viewpoints and enrich their media arts making (VCAMAR039)

Media Arts Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students identify and analyse how representations of social values and viewpoints are portrayed in the media artworks they make, distribute and view.

Students use intent, structure, setting, characters and genre conventions to shape technical and symbolic elements for specific purposes and meanings. They evaluate how they and others use these genre conventions and elements to make meaning. They identify and analyse the social and ethical responsibilities of both makers and users of media artworks in social, cultural, historical and institutional contexts.

Students produce representations of social values and viewpoints in media artworks for particular audiences. They use production processes, equipment and technologies to achieve their intentions.

Music

Music Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students make and respond to music independently and collaboratively, with their peers, teachers and communities.

Students using listening skills to identify and make decisions about how they can manipulate rhythm, pitch, dynamics and expression, form and structure, and timbre and texture to achieve expressive outcomes or realise specific intentions when composing and performing...

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Music Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Experiment with elements of music, in isolation and in combination, using listening skills, voice, instruments and technologies to find ways to create and manipulate effects (VCAMUE033)
  2. Develop music ideas through improvisation, composition and performance, combining and manipulating the elements of music (VCAMUE034)

Music Practices

  1. Create, practise and rehearse music to develop listening, compositional and technical and expressive performance skills (VCAMUM035)
  2. Structure compositions by combining and manipulating the elements of music and using notation (VCAMUM036)

Present and Perform

  1. Rehearse and perform to audiences in different settings and contexts, a range of music they have learnt or composed, using techniques and expression appropriate to style (VCAMUP037)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse composers’ use of the elements of music and stylistic features when listening to and interpreting music (VCAMUR038)
  2. Identify and connect specific features and purposes of music from contemporary and past times including the music of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, to explore viewpoints and enrich their music making (VCAMUR039)

Music Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students manipulate the elements of music and stylistic conventions to improvise, compose and perform music. They use evidence from listening and analysis to interpret, rehearse and perform songs and instrumental pieces in unison and in parts, demonstrating technical and expressive skills. They use music terminology and symbols to recognise, describe and notate selected features of music.

Students identify and analyse how the elements of music are used in different styles and apply this knowledge in their performances and compositions. They evaluate musical choices they and others have made to communicate ideas and intentions as performers and composers of music from different cultures, times and locations.

Personal and Social Capability

Personal and Social Capability Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on emotional self-management and the ability to recognise the characteristics of respectful relationships in a range of contexts. Students learn about personal values and how they may differ. The curriculum provides opportunities for students to demonstrate performance in a variety of team roles. They explore forms of conflict and reflect on the appropriateness of strategies to avoid or resolve conflict.

Personal and Social Capability Content Descriptions

Self-Awareness and Management

Recognition and expression of emotions
  1. Describe how and why emotional responses may change in different contexts (VCPSCSE034)
Development of resilience
  1. Assess personal strengths using feedback from peers, teachers and others and prioritise areas for improvement (VCPSCSE035)
  2. Discuss the range of strategies that could be used to cope with difficult tasks or changing situations (VCPSCSE036)
  3. Reflect on their effectiveness in working independently by identifying enablers and barriers to achieving goals (VCPSCSE037)

Social Awareness and Management

Relationships and diversity
  1. Explore their personal values and beliefs and analyse how these values and beliefs might be different or similar to those of others (VCPSCSO038)
  2. Investigate human rights and discuss how these contribute to a cohesive community (VCPSCSO039)
  3. Recognise the impact of personal boundaries, intimacy, distribution of power and social and cultural norms and mores on the ways relationships are expressed (VCPSCSO040)
Collaboration
  1. Perform in a variety of team roles and accept responsibility as a team member and team leader, assessing how well they support other members of the team (VCPSCSO041)
  2. Identify ways to be proactive in initiating strategies to prevent and/or accomplish positive resolutions to conflict (VCPSCSO042)

Personal and Social Capability Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students reflect on the influence of emotions on behaviour, learning and relationships. They use feedback to identify their achievements and prioritise areas for improvement. They initiate and undertake some tasks independently, within negotiated time frames and use criteria to review their work. They reflect on strategies to cope with difficult situations and are able justify their choice of strategy demonstrating knowledge of resilience and adaptability.

Students explain the impact of valuing diversity and promoting human rights in the community. They explore the values and beliefs of different groups in society. They identify indicators of respectful relationships in a range of social and work-related situations. They explain the extent to which individual roles and responsibilities enhance group cohesion and the achievement of personal and group objectives. They assess the appropriateness of various strategies to avoid or resolve conflict in a range of situations.

Science

Science Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focus is on explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students explain the role of classification in ordering and organising information about living and non-living things. They classify the diversity of life on Earth into major taxonomic groups and consider how the classification of renewable and non-renewable resources depends on the timescale...

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Scientific knowledge and understanding of the world changes as new evidence becomes available; science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines and practice of science (VCSSU089)
  2. Science and technology contribute to finding solutions to a range of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas of society and involve ethical considerations (VCSSU090)
Biological sciences
  1. There are differences within and between groups of organisms; classification helps organise this diversity (VCSSU091)
  2. Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions (VCSSU092)
  3. Interactions between organisms can be described in terms of food chains and food webs and can be affected by human activity (VCSSU093)
  4. Multicellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (VCSSU094)
Chemical sciences
  1. Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques (VCSSU095)
  2. The properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles (VCSSU096)
  3. Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described by using a particle model (VCSSU097)
  4. Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances (VCSSU098)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Predictable phenomena on Earth, including seasons and eclipses, are caused by the relative positions of the Sun, Earth and the Moon (VCSSU099)
  2. Some of Earth’s resources are renewable, but others are non-renewable (VCSSU100)
  3. Water is an important resource that cycles through the environment (VCSSU101)
  4. Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (VCSSU102)
Physical sciences
  1. Change to an object’s motion is caused by unbalanced forces acting on the object; Earth’s gravity pulls objects towards the centre of Earth (VCSSU103)
  2. Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat, light, chemical energy and potential energy; devices can change energy from one form to another (VCSSU104)
  3. Light can form images using the reflective feature of curved mirrors and the refractive feature of lenses, and can disperse to produce a spectrum which is part of a larger spectrum of radiation (VCSSU105)
  4. The properties of sound can be explained by a wave model (VCSSU106)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Identify questions, problems and claims that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (VCSIS107)
Planning and conducting
  1. Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed (VCSIS108)
  2. In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task (VCSIS109)
Recording and processing
  1. Construct and use a range of representations including graphs, keys and models to record and summarise data from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and to represent and analyse patterns and relationships (VCSIS110)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to identify relationships, evaluate claims and draw conclusions (VCSIS111)
  2. Reflect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identify improvements to the method (VCSIS112)
Communicating
  1. Communicate ideas, findings and solutions to problems including identifying impacts and limitations of conclusions and using appropriate scientific language and representations (VCSIS113)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea. They discuss how science knowledge can be applied to generate solutions to contemporary problems and explain how these solutions may impact on society. They investigate different forms of energy and explain how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They use examples to illustrate how light forms images. They use a wave model to explain the properties of sound. They use the particle model to predict, compare and explain the physical and chemical properties and behaviours of substances. They describe and apply techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They provide evidence for observed chemical changes in terms of colour change, heat change, gas production and precipitate formation. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. They identify and classify living things. They explain how living organisms can be classified into major taxonomic groups based on observable similarities and differences. They predict the effect of environmental changes on feeding relationships between...

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Visual Arts

Visual Arts Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students make and respond to visual artworks. They design and create visual expressions of selected themes and concepts through a variety of visual arts forms and styles. Students develop an informed opinion about artworks based on their research of current and past artists. They examine their own culture and develop a deeper understanding of their practices as an artist.

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Visual Arts Content Descriptions

Explore and Express Ideas

  1. Explore visual arts practices as inspiration to explore and develop themes, concepts or ideas in artworks (VCAVAE033)
  2. Explore how artists use materials, techniques, technologies and processes to realise their intentions in art works (VCAVAE034)

Visual Arts Practices

  1. Experiment with materials, techniques, technologies and processes in a range of art forms to express ideas, concepts and themes in artworks (VCAVAV035)
  2. Develop skills in planning and designing art works and documenting artistic practice (VCAVAV036)

Present and Perform

  1. Create and display artworks, describing how ideas are expressed to an audience (VCAVAP037)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Analyse how ideas and viewpoints are expressed in art works and how they are viewed by audiences (VCAVAR038)
  2. Identify and connect specific features of visual artworks from different cultures, historical and contemporary times, including artworks by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCAVAR039)

Visual Arts Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students identify, analyse and evaluate how other artists use materials, techniques, technologies, processes and visual conventions to express ideas and convey meaning.

Students plan and make their art works in response to exploration of techniques, technologies and processes used in the work of other artists. They demonstrate the use of materials, techniques, processes, visual conventions and technologies to express ideas and convey meaning in their artworks.

Students identify and describe artworks and exhibitions from different cultures, times and places and how ideas are interpreted by audiences.

Visual Communication Design

Visual Communication Design Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, students research and investigate the practices and viewpoints of designers in the creation of visual communications and gain an understanding of how to visually communicate ideas to an audience. They experiment and develop their skills in creative, critical and reflective thinking through the use of a design process. Students consider social, ethical, economic, and environmental...

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Visual Communication Design Content Descriptions

Explore and Represent Ideas

  1. Explore and apply methods, materials, media, design elements and design principles to create and present visual communications (VCAVCDE001)

Visual Communication Design Practices

  1. Use manual and digital drawing methods and conventions to create a range of visual communications (VCAVCDV002)

Present and Perform

  1. Develop and present visual communications for different purposes, audiences and in response to specific needs (VCAVCDP003)

Respond and Interpret

  1. Identify and describe the purpose, intended audience and context in a range of visual communications from different historical, social and cultural contexts (VCAVCDR004)
  2. Identify and describe the use of methods, media, materials, design elements and design principles in visual communications from different historical, social and cultural contexts (VCAVCDR005)

Visual Communication Design Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students identify and describe how designers use visual communication practices to respond to briefs in different historical, social and cultural contexts. They apply this knowledge in the development of their own visual communication practices.

Students select and use appropriate drawing conventions, methods, materials, media, design elements and design principles to create effective visual communications.

Students evaluate how they and others are affected and influenced by visual communications from different cultures, times and places. They identify and describe practices of visual communication designers in visual communications from different cultures, times and places.

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