Skip to main content Skip to navigation

Science

Filter
Filter
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D  
  5. F-2
  6. 3-4
  7. 5-6
  8. 7-8
  9. 9-10

Level A (Towards Foundation)

Level A Description

In Level A, students learn that their senses can help them understand the world around them and the objects within it. They experience a range of activities that will assist them to attend to and...

Show more

Level A Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. There are objects in the world around us (VCSSU001)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things are part of the world around us (VCSSU002)
Chemical sciences
  1. Objects are part of the world around us (VCSSU003)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Changes in the world around us can affect responses (VCSSU004)
Physical sciences
  1. Objects can be moved and touched (VCSSU005)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Engage and react to objects and events (VCSIS006)
Planning and conducting
  1. Gather information about objects and events (VCSIS007)
Recording and processing
  1. React and respond to objects and events (VCSIS008)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Accept and reject objects and events from the world around them (VCSIS009)
Communicating
  1. Communicate by initiating and refining their responses and using accept-or-reject gestures or actions (VCSIS010)

Level A Achievement Standard

By the end of Level A, students react to the properties and behaviour of familiar objects. They react to environmental changes and respond to their effects through a positive or negative response. Students initiate and communicate a response to, or acceptance or rejection of, familiar objects and events.

Level B (Towards Foundation)

Level B Description

In Level B, students play and use structured activities to make observations and use their senses to investigate the behaviours and properties of everyday objects, materials and living things. They...

Show more

Level B Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Objects and the world around us can be explored (VCSSU011)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things can look and feel different (VCSSU012)
Chemical sciences
  1. Objects can be the same or different and can look and feel different (VCSSU013)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The weather and time of day can change (VCSSU014)
Physical sciences
  1. Objects can be changed and manipulated (VCSSU015)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Engage in simple cause-and-effect exploration (VCSIS016)
Planning and conducting
  1. Explore using their senses (VCSIS017)
Recording and processing
  1. Use ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response, pictures, photos and concrete objects to demonstrate their findings (VCSIS018)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Supported to make links between causes and effects (VCSIS019)
Communicating
  1. Respond to language used to label and describe properties and begin to identify familiar objects (VCSIS020)

Level B Achievement Standard

By the end of Level B, students can identify some familiar objects. They actively explore the properties of familiar objects and deliberately initiate a cause to achieve the expected effect. In structured situations, teachers assist the student to record observations of the weather, familiar objects and events using real objects and visual aids. They communicate their choices and indicate ‘yes’ and ‘no’ responses to simple questions.

Level C (Towards Foundation)

Level C Description

In Level C, students intentionally participate in investigations that require them to explore, observe and identify properties of everyday objects, materials and living things. They explore change...

Show more

Level C Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Objects and parts of the world around us have names and particular characteristics (VCSSU021)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things have different names and parts (VCSSU022)
Chemical sciences
  1. Objects have different names and properties, and some can be manipulated and changed (VCSSU023)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Weather involves sun, rain, wind and clouds and can be hot, cold and warm (VCSSU024)
Physical sciences
  1. Objects can move in different ways (VCSSU025)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Supported to engage in simple scientific inquiry (VCSIS026)
Planning and conducting
  1. Supported to use the senses to identify some characteristics (VCSIS027)
Recording and processing
  1. Use pictures and words to describe observations and findings and begin to categorise objects (VCSIS028)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Make links between observations and findings (VCSIS029)
Communicating
  1. Use pictures, symbols, concrete objects and/or simple familiar words to facilitate communication (VCSIS030)

Level C Achievement Standard

By the end of Level C, students participate in structured investigations that look at the names and properties of living things and objects. They label, sort and group objects based on one specific property or characteristic. Students share discoveries through alternative augmentative communication and the use of objects, images and pictures.

Level D (Towards Foundation)

Level D Description

In Level D, students are building their independence to observe and share what they discover about the characteristics and properties of everyday objects, materials and living things. They explore...

Show more

Level D Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Science is about exploring the world around me (VCSSU031)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things can be plants or animals (VCSSU032)
Chemical sciences
  1. Objects can be sorted into groups based on their properties, and some objects can be mixed and changed (VCSSU033)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The weather and time of day affect events and clothing choices (VCSSU034)
Physical sciences
  1. The shape of objects will affect how they move (VCSSU035)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Actively join in exploration of familiar objects and events (VCSIS036)
Planning and conducting
  1. Actively observe, explore and manipulate (VCSIS037)
Recording and processing
  1. Use pictures, words and provided simple graphic organisers to record observations and findings and sort objects into groups based on particular characteristics (VCSIS038)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Use words to answer simple questions about observations and findings (VCSIS039)
Communicating
  1. Use both general terms and simple, scientific vocabulary to begin to describe their activities and observations (VCSIS040)

Level D Achievement Standard

By the end of Level D, students can identify and label many familiar objects and indicate some of their properties by using gestures, words, images and objects. They can sort objects based on two properties and can identify key characteristics of familiar plants and animals. Students can identify some ways the weather affects the environment and their clothing choices. Students share and demonstrate their understanding of objects and events through images, pictures, alternative and augmentative communication and simple statements.

Foundation to Level 2

Foundation to Level 2 Description

In Foundation to Level 2, the curriculum focus is on awareness of self and the local world. Students observe changes that can be large or small and happen quickly or slowly. They explore the properties...

Show more

Foundation to Level 2 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. People use science in their daily lives (VCSSU041)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things have a variety of external features and live in different places where their basic needs, including food, water and shelter, are met (VCSSU042)
  2. Living things grow, change and have offspring similar to themselves (VCSSU043)
Chemical sciences
  1. Objects are made of materials that have observable properties (VCSSU044)
  2. Everyday materials can be physically changed or combined with other materials in a variety of ways for particular purposes (VCSSU045)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Observable changes occur in the sky and landscape; daily and seasonal changes affect everyday life (VCSSU046)
  2. Earth’s resources are used in a variety of ways (VCSSU047)
Physical sciences
  1. The way objects move depends on a variety of factors including their size and shape: a push or a pull affects how an object moves or changes shape (VCSSU048)
  2. Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be sensed (VCSSU049)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Respond to and pose questions, and make predictions about familiar objects and events (VCSIS050)
Planning and conducting
  1. Participate in guided investigations, including making observations using the senses, to explore and answer questions (VCSIS051)
Recording and processing
  1. Use informal measurements in the collection and recording of observations (VCSIS052)
  2. Use a range of methods, including drawings and provided tables, to sort information (VCSIS053)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Compare observations and predictions with those of others (VCSIS054)
Communicating
  1. Represent and communicate observations and ideas about changes in objects and events in a variety of ways (VCSIS055)

Foundation to Level 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 2, students describe examples of how people use science in their daily lives. They identify and describe examples of the external features and basic needs of living things. They describe how different places meet the needs of living things. They describe the properties, behaviour, uses and the effects of interacting with familiar materials and objects. They discuss how light and sound can be produced and sensed. They identify and describe the changes to objects, materials, resources, living things and things in their local environment. They suggest how the environment affects them and other living things.

Students pose and respond to questions about familiar objects and events and predict outcomes of investigations. They use their senses to explore the world around them and record informal measurements to make and compare observations. They record, sort and represent their observations and communicate their ideas to others.

Levels 3 and 4

Levels 3 and 4 Description

In Levels 3 and 4, the curriculum focus is on recognising questions that can be investigated scientifically and undertaking investigations. Students observe heat and its effects on solids and...

Show more

Levels 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Science knowledge helps people to understand the effects of their actions (VCSSU056)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things can be grouped on the basis of observable features and can be distinguished from non-living things (VCSSU057)
  2. Different living things have different life cycles and depend on each other and the environment to survive (VCSSU058)
Chemical sciences
  1. A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat (VCSSU059)
  2. Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties; these properties can influence their use (VCSSU060)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day (VCSSU061)
  2. Earth’s surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human activity (VCSSU062)
Physical sciences
  1. Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one object to another; a change in the temperature of an object is related to the gain or loss of heat by the object (VCSSU063)
  2. Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct contact or from a distance (VCSSU064)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically and predict what might happen based on prior knowledge (VCSIS065)
Planning and conducting
  1. Suggest ways to plan and conduct investigations to find answers to questions including consideration of the elements of fair tests (VCSIS066)
  2. Safely use appropriate materials, tools, equipment and technologies (VCSIS067)
Recording and processing
  1. Use formal measurements in the collection and recording of observations (VCSIS068)
  2. Use a range of methods including tables and column graphs to represent data and to identify patterns and trends (VCSIS069)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings (VCSIS070)
  2. Reflect on an investigation, including whether a test was fair or not (VCSIS071)
Communicating
  1. Represent and communicate observations, ideas and findings to show patterns and relationships using formal and informal scientific language (VCSIS072)

Levels 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 4, students describe situations where science understanding can influence their own and others’ actions. They explain the effects of Earth’s rotation on its axis. They distinguish between temperature and heat and use examples to illustrate how heat is produced and transferred. They explain how heat is involved in changes of state between solid and liquid. They link the physical properties of materials to their use. They discuss how natural and human processes cause changes to Earth’s surface. They use contact and non-contact forces to describe interactions between objects. They group living things based on observable features and distinguish them from non-living things. They describe relationships that assist the survival of living things. They compare the key stages...

Show more

Levels 5 and 6

Levels 5 and 6 Description

In Levels 5 and 6, the curriculum focus is on recognising questions that can be investigated scientifically and undertaking investigations. Students explore how changes can be classified in different...

Show more

Levels 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to inform personal and community decisions and to solve problems that directly affect people’s lives (VCSSU073)
Biological sciences
  1. Living things have structural features and adaptations that help them to survive in their environment (VCSSU074)
  2. The growth and survival of living things are affected by the physical conditions of their environment (VCSSU075)
Chemical sciences
  1. Solids, liquids and gases behave in different ways and have observable properties that help to classify them (VCSSU076)
  2. Changes to materials can be reversible, including melting, freezing, evaporating, or irreversible, including burning and rusting (VCSSU077)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Earth is part of a system of planets orbiting around a star (the Sun) (VCSSU078)
  2. Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface (VCSSU079)
Physical sciences
  1. Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted (VCSSU080)
  2. Energy from a variety of sources can be used to generate electricity; electric circuits enable this energy to be transferred to another place and then to be transformed into another form of energy (VCSSU081)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation, and predict what the findings of an investigation might be based on previous experiences or general rules (VCSIS082)
Planning and conducting
  1. With guidance, plan appropriate investigation types to answer questions or solve problems and use equipment, technologies and materials safely, identifying potential risks (VCSIS083)
  2. Decide which variables should be changed, measured and controlled in fair tests and accurately observe, measure and record data (VCSIS084)
Recording and processing
  1. Construct and use a range of representations, including tables and graphs, to record, represent and describe observations, patterns or relationships in data (VCSIS085)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Compare data with predictions and use as evidence in developing explanations (VCSIS086)
  2. Suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem (VCSIS087)
Communicating
  1. Communicate ideas and processes using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena and to identify simple cause-and-effect relationships (VCSIS088)

Levels 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 6, students explain how scientific knowledge is used in decision making and develops from many people’s contributions. They discuss how scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions affect peoples’ lives. They compare the properties and behaviours of solids, liquids and gases. They compare observable changes to materials and classify these changes as reversible or irreversible. They explain everyday phenomena associated with the absorption, reflection and refraction of light. They compare different ways in which energy can be transformed from one form to another to generate electricity and evaluate their suitability for particular purposes. They construct electric circuits and distinguish between open and closed circuits. They explain how natural events cause...

Show more

Levels 7 and 8

Levels 7 and 8 Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focus is on explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students explain the role of classification in ordering and organising information about...

Show more

Levels 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Scientific knowledge and understanding of the world changes as new evidence becomes available; science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines and practice of science (VCSSU089)
  2. Science and technology contribute to finding solutions to a range of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas of society and involve ethical considerations (VCSSU090)
Biological sciences
  1. There are differences within and between groups of organisms; classification helps organise this diversity (VCSSU091)
  2. Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions (VCSSU092)
  3. Interactions between organisms can be described in terms of food chains and food webs and can be affected by human activity (VCSSU093)
  4. Multicellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (VCSSU094)
Chemical sciences
  1. Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques (VCSSU095)
  2. The properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles (VCSSU096)
  3. Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described by using a particle model (VCSSU097)
  4. Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances (VCSSU098)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Predictable phenomena on Earth, including seasons and eclipses, are caused by the relative positions of the Sun, Earth and the Moon (VCSSU099)
  2. Some of Earth’s resources are renewable, but others are non-renewable (VCSSU100)
  3. Water is an important resource that cycles through the environment (VCSSU101)
  4. Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (VCSSU102)
Physical sciences
  1. Change to an object’s motion is caused by unbalanced forces acting on the object; Earth’s gravity pulls objects towards the centre of Earth (VCSSU103)
  2. Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat, light, chemical energy and potential energy; devices can change energy from one form to another (VCSSU104)
  3. Light can form images using the reflective feature of curved mirrors and the refractive feature of lenses, and can disperse to produce a spectrum which is part of a larger spectrum of radiation (VCSSU105)
  4. The properties of sound can be explained by a wave model (VCSSU106)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Identify questions, problems and claims that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (VCSIS107)
Planning and conducting
  1. Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed (VCSIS108)
  2. In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task (VCSIS109)
Recording and processing
  1. Construct and use a range of representations including graphs, keys and models to record and summarise data from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and to represent and analyse patterns and relationships (VCSIS110)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to identify relationships, evaluate claims and draw conclusions (VCSIS111)
  2. Reflect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identify improvements to the method (VCSIS112)
Communicating
  1. Communicate ideas, findings and solutions to problems including identifying impacts and limitations of conclusions and using appropriate scientific language and representations (VCSIS113)

Levels 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea. They discuss how science knowledge can be applied to generate solutions to contemporary problems and explain how these solutions may impact on society. They investigate different forms of energy and explain how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They use examples to illustrate how light forms images. They use a wave model to explain the properties of sound. They use the particle model to predict, compare and explain the physical and chemical properties and behaviours of substances. They describe and apply techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They provide evidence for observed chemical changes in terms of colour change, heat...

Show more

Levels 9 and 10

Levels 9 and 10 Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focus is on explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students consider both classic and contemporary science contexts to explain the operation...

Show more

Levels 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
  1. Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (VCSSU114)
  2. Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (VCSSU115)
  3. The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (VCSSU116)
Biological sciences
  1. Multicellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment (VCSSU117)
  2. An animal’s response to a stimulus is coordinated by its central nervous system (brain and spinal cord); neurons transmit electrical impulses and are connected by synapses (VCSSU118)
  3. The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes (VCSSU119)
  4. The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence (VCSSU120)
  5. Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems (VCSSU121)
Chemical sciences
  1. All matter is made of atoms which are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms (VCSSU122)
  2. The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the periodic table (VCSSU123)
  3. Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed (VCSSU124)
  4. Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates; chemical reactions may be represented by balanced chemical equations (VCSSU125)
  5. Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (VCSSU126)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement (VCSSU127)
  2. Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere (VCSSU128)
  3. The Universe contains features including galaxies, stars and solar systems; the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin of the Universe (VCSSU129)
Physical sciences
  1. Electric circuits can be designed for diverse purposes using different components; the operation of circuits can be explained by the concepts of voltage and current (VCSSU130)
  2. The interaction of magnets can be explained by a field model; magnets are used in the generation of electricity and the operation of motors (VCSSU131)
  3. Energy flow in Earth’s atmosphere can be explained by the processes of heat transfer (VCSSU132)
  4. The description and explanation of the motion of objects involves the interaction of forces and the exchange of energy and can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (VCSSU133)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically, including identification of independent, dependent and controlled variables (VCSIS134)
Planning and conducting
  1. Independently plan, select and use appropriate investigation types, including fieldwork and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data, assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these investigation types (VCSIS135)
  2. Select and use appropriate equipment and technologies to systematically collect and record accurate and reliable data, and use repeat trials to improve accuracy, precision and reliability (VCSIS136)
Recording and processing
  1. Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys, models and formulas, to record and summarise data from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, to represent qualitative and quantitative patterns or relationships, and distinguish between discrete and continuous data (VCSIS137)
Analysing and evaluating
  1. Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables, identifying inconsistencies in data and sources of uncertainty, and drawing conclusions that are consistent with evidence (VCSIS138)
  2. Use knowledge of scientific concepts to evaluate investigation conclusions, including assessing the approaches used to solve problems, critically analysing the validity of information obtained from primary and secondary sources, suggesting possible alternative explanations and describing specific ways to improve the quality of data (VCSIS139)
Communicating
  1. Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (VCSIS140)

Levels 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students analyse how models and theories have developed over time and discuss the factors that prompted their review. They predict how future applications of science and technology may affect people’s lives. They explain the concept of energy conservation and model energy transfer and transformation within systems. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to the interdependencies between individual components, energy transfers and flows of matter. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the Universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the role of DNA and genes in cell division and genetic inheritance. They apply geological timescales to elaborate their explanations...

Show more
Scroll to the top of the page