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Critical and Creative Thinking

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  2. B
  3. C
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  5. F-2
  6. 3-4
  7. 5-6
  8. 7-8
  9. 9-10

Level A (Towards Foundation)

Level A Description

In Level A, the curriculum focuses on exposing students to choice making, reasoning and problem solving. Students encounter vocabulary and simple strategies used to structure and improve thinking. Students are learning how to attend to, explore and experience the world around them.

Level A Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Exposed to the concept of posing questions (VCCCTQ054)
  2. React to the world around them (VCCCTQ055)
  3. Experience the generating of ideas and routine solutions (VCCCTQ056)

Reasoning

  1. Exposed to the application of reasoning and conclusions (VCCCTR057)
  2. Encounter information and ideas through everyday experiences, problems and exploration (VCCCTR058)
  3. Exposure to meaning through practical application and example in everyday experiences (VCCCTR059)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Experience the world and react using emotions (VCCCTM060)
  2. Experience the implementation of learning strategies and use of repetition in their learning experiences (VCCCTM061)
  3. Experience various problem solving approaches (VCCCTM062)

Level A Achievement Standard

By the end of Level A, students react to significant changes in their environment. Students generate ideas by using their senses to explore the characteristics of everyday objects and make choices between objects.

Students begin to identify their personal preference and make choices about what they would like and dislike.

Students are exposed to everyday problems and communicate their thinking through emotion responses. They experience the learning strategy of repetition and beginning to react in everyday routine activities. Students communicate when faced with a problem.

Level B (Towards Foundation)

Level B Description

In Level B, the curriculum focuses on developing students understanding of the world around them, how to learn and solve everyday problems. Students become familiar with simple strategies to structure and understand the world and thinking. Students are exposed to thinking processes.

Level B Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Explore questions about the world around them (VCCCTQ063)
  2. Use past experience to inform choice making and responses (VCCCTQ064)
  3. Generate ideas and solutions about everyday objects and experience (VCCCTQ065)

Reasoning

  1. Experience reasoning and conclusions (VCCCTR066)
  2. Experience information and ideas by participating in routine experiences (VCCCTR067)
  3. Make connections about objects and their purpose and application (VCCCTR068)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Use thinking to identify and express basic needs and linking objects to a label and purpose (VCCCTM069)
  2. Experience the learning strategies of visualisation and repetition (VCCCTM070)
  3. Encounter everyday problems and learn how to solve them (VCCCTM071)

Level B Achievement Standard

By the end of Level B, students use their senses and cause and effect to explore and understand the world around them. Students generate ideas based on their experiences and make choices in structured situations.

Students begin to become aware of their own point of view through their emotions. Students answer ‘yes’ and ‘no’ questions which assist them to reflect on their learning and choice making.

Students use learning strategies including repetition to participate in everyday routines and events. They use cause and effect to understand the world around them and solve problems.

Level C (Towards Foundation)

Level C Description

In Level C, the curriculum focuses on developing the skills to reason, problem solve and learn. Students become familiar with simple strategies to structure thinking and solve problems. Students explore how thinking can be made explicit.

Level C Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Explore and answer who, what and where questions (VCCCTQ072)
  2. Explore how past experience influences thinking and reactions to situations (VCCCTQ073)
  3. Explore and investigate ideas and solutions (VCCCTQ074)

Reasoning

  1. Create conclusions based on exploration (VCCCTR075)
  2. Apply reasoning to routine tasks and identify their feelings about their work, action or the consequences of a choice (VCCCTR076)
  3. Express preferences drawing on past experiences and everyday examples (VCCCTR077)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Express their thinking by reflecting on what they know and communicating their emotions (VCCCTM078)
  2. Use some learning strategies to demonstrate their learning and thinking (VCCCTM079)
  3. Investigate everyday problems and exploring possible solutions and their outcomes (VCCCTM080)

Level C Achievement Standard

By the end of Level C, students answer simple questions about familiar events and topics. They identify a familiar idea or experience with support and make choices from a range of options.

Students can identify their own point of view. They use personal experience and examples to explain reasons. They connect present and past experience with support.

Students predict what will happen next in a familiar routine. They practice some learning strategies including following a visual schedule. Students demonstrate some problem-solving approaches when faced with common everyday issues.

Level D (Towards Foundation)

Level D Description

In Level D, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge and skills to express reasons, to problem solve and learn more effectively. Students become familiar with simple strategies to structure and improve thinking. Students learn how thinking can be made explicit.

Level D Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Pose questions to gather information (VCCCTQ081)
  2. Investigate how past experience influences thinking and reactions to situations and problems (VCCCTQ082)
  3. Generate different ideas and possibilities (VCCCTQ083)

Reasoning

  1. Explore reasons and conclusions through investigation (VCCCTR084)
  2. Identify own reasoning and explore ideas, information and options with others (VCCCTR085)
  3. Use examples and past experience to illustrate understanding and point of view (VCCCTR086)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Experience ways to express their thinking, including expression of ideas and feelings about learning (VCCCTM087)
  2. Explore learning strategies required to address everyday problems and situations (VCCCTM088)
  3. Investigate problems and begin to identify different prospects and possible solutions (VCCCTM089)

Level D Achievement Standard

By the end of Level D, students answer simple questions related to their own investigation, their feelings or concept. They identify and describe an event or scientific experiment. They generate ideas based on past experience and make choices based on their personal preferences.

Students can identify some components of a point of view. They draw on previous experience to assist with their ideas, reasoning and when drawing a conclusion.

Students actively participate in structured thinking activities. They practice some learning strategies to assist them to organise and demonstrate their ideas. Students participate in problem solving activities and can articulate some possible solutions and their outcome in structured practical situations.

Foundation to Level 2

Foundation to Level 2 Description

From Foundation to Level 2, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to express reasoning and to problem solve and learn more effectively. Students become familiar with key vocabulary and simple strategies to structure and improve thinking. Students develop an understanding that thinking can be made explicit.

Foundation to Level 2 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Identify, describe and use different kinds of question stems to gather information and ideas (VCCCTQ001)
  2. Consider personal reactions to situations or problems and how these reactions may influence thinking (VCCCTQ002)
  3. Make simple modifications to known ideas and routine solutions to generate some different ideas and possibilities (VCCCTQ003)

Reasoning

  1. Examine words that show reasons and words that show conclusions (VCCCTR004)
  2. Compare and contrast information and ideas in own and others reasoning (VCCCTR005)
  3. Consider how reasons and examples are used to support a point of view and illustrate meaning (VCCCTR006)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Consider ways to express and describe thinking activity, including the expression of feelings about learning, both to others and self (VCCCTM007)
  2. Explore some learning strategies, including planning, repetition, rewording, memorisation and use of mnemonics (VCCCTM008)
  3. Investigate ways to problem-solve, using egocentric and experiential language (VCCCTM009)

Foundation to Level 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 2, students use and give examples of different kinds of questions. Students generate ideas that are new to them and make choices after considering personal preferences.

Students identify words that indicate components of a point of view. They use reasons and examples for different purposes.

Students express and describe thinking activity. They practice some learning strategies. Students demonstrate and articulate some problem-solving approaches.

Levels 3 and 4

Levels 3 and 4 Description

In Levels 3 and 4, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to improve and monitor thinking. Students learn and consider the advantages of different thinking techniques. Students learn there are different ways to respond to problems, visualise thinking and think more effectively.

Levels 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Construct and use open and closed questions for different purposes (VCCCTQ010)
  2. Explore reactions to a given situation or problem and consider the effect of pre-established preferences (VCCCTQ011)
  3. Investigate different techniques to sort facts and extend known ideas to generate novel and imaginative ideas (VCCCTQ012)

Reasoning

  1. Examine and use the structure of a basic argument, with an aim, reasons and conclusion to present a point of view (VCCCTR013)
  2. Distinguish between main and peripheral ideas in own and others information and points of view (VCCCTR014)
  3. Investigate why and when the consequences of a point of view should be considered (VCCCTR015)
  4. Identify and use ‘If, then…’ and ‘what if…’ reasoning (VCCCTR016)
  5. Explore distinctions when organising and sorting information and ideas from a range of sources (VCCCTR017)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Consider concrete and pictorial models to facilitate thinking, including a range of visualisation strategies (VCCCTM018)
  2. Examine an increased range of learning strategies, including visualisation, note-taking, peer instruction and incubation, and reflect on how these can be applied to different tasks to reach a goal (VCCCTM019)
  3. Investigate a range of problem-solving strategies, including brainstorming, identifying, comparing and selecting options, and developing and testing hypotheses (VCCCTM020)

Levels 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 4, students explain how to construct open and closed questions and use them for different purposes. Students select and apply techniques to generate a range of ideas that extend how problems are solved.

Students describe and structure arguments with clearly identified aims, premises and conclusions. They use and explain a range of strategies to develop their arguments. They identify the need to make distinctions and apply strategies to make these.

Students use concrete and pictorial models to facilitate thinking, including a range of visualisation strategies. They practice and apply an increased range of learning strategies, including visualisation, note-taking, peer instruction and incubation. Students select and apply a range of problem-solving strategies.

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Levels 5 and 6

Levels 5 and 6 Description

In Levels 5 and 6, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to test the strength of thinking. Students develop their capacity to deliberately manage their thinking. Students explore common errors that can occur in thinking.

Levels 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Examine how different kinds of questions can be used to identify and clarify information, ideas and possibilities (VCCCTQ021)
  2. Experiment with alternative ideas and actions by setting preconceptions to one side (VCCCTQ022)
  3. Identify and form links and patterns from multiple information sources to generate non-routine ideas and possibilities (VCCCTQ023)

Reasoning

  1. Investigate common reasoning errors including contradiction and inconsistency, and the influence of context (VCCCTR024)
  2. Consider the importance of giving reasons and evidence and how the strength of these can be evaluated (VCCCTR025)
  3. Consider when analogies might be used in expressing a point of view and how they should be expressed and evaluated (VCCCTR026)
  4. Examine the difference between valid and sound arguments and between inductive and deductive reasoning, and their degrees of certainty (VCCCTR027)
  5. Explore what a criterion is, different kinds of criteria, and how to select appropriate criteria for the purposes of filtering information and ideas (VCCCTR028)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Investigate thinking processes using visual models and language strategies (VCCCTM029)
  2. Examine learning strategies, including constructing analogies, visualising ideas, summarising and paraphrasing information and reflect on the application of these strategies in different situations (VCCCTM030)
  3. Investigate how ideas and problems can be disaggregated into smaller elements or ideas, how criteria can be used to identify gaps in existing knowledge, and assess and test ideas and proposals (VCCCTM031)

Levels 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 6, students apply questioning as a tool to focus or expand thinking. They use appropriate techniques to copy, borrow and compare aspects of existing solutions in order to identify relationships and apply these to new situations.

Students distinguish between valid and sound arguments and between deductive and inductive reasoning. They explain how reasons and evidence can be evaluated. They explain and apply basic techniques to construct valid arguments and test the strength of arguments.

Students represent thinking processes using visual models and language. They practice and apply learning strategies, including constructing analogies, visualising ideas, summarising and paraphrasing information. Students disaggregate ideas and problems into smaller elements or ideas, develop criteria to assess and test thinking, and identify and seek out new relevant information as required.

Levels 7 and 8

Levels 7 and 8 Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to analyse thinking and the selection and application of a range of techniques to support effective...

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Levels 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Consider how to approach and use questions that have different elements, including factual, temporal and conceptual elements (VCCCTQ032)
  2. Suspend judgements temporarily and consider how preconceptions may limit ideas and alternatives (VCCCTQ033)
  3. Synthesise information from multiple sources and use lateral thinking techniques to draw parallels between known and new solutions and ideas when creating original proposals and artefacts (VCCCTQ034)

Reasoning

  1. Examine common reasoning errors including circular arguments and cause and effect fallacies (VCCCTR035)
  2. Investigate the difference between a description, an explanation and a correlation and scepticism about cause and effect (VCCCTR036)
  3. Investigate when counter examples might be used in expressing a point of view (VCCCTR037)
  4. Consider how to settle matters of fact and matters of value and the degree of confidence in the conclusions (VCCCTR038)
  5. Examine how to select appropriate criteria and how criteria are used in clarifying and challenging arguments and ideas (VCCCTR039)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Consider a range of strategies to represent ideas and explain and justify thinking processes to others (VCCCTM040)
  2. Examine a range of learning strategies and how to select strategies that best meet the requirements of a task (VCCCTM041)
  3. Consider how problems can be segmented into discrete stages, new knowledge synthesised during problem-solving and criteria used to assess emerging ideas and proposals (VCCCTM042)

Levels 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students prioritise the elements of a question and justify their selection. Students demonstrate flexibility in thinking by using a range of techniques in order to repurpose existing ideas or solutions to meet needs in new contexts.

Students explain different ways to settle matters of fact and matters of value and issues concerned with these. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test the strength of arguments.

Students use a range of strategies to represent ideas and explain and justify thinking processes to others. They evaluate the effectiveness of a range of learning strategies and select strategies that best meet the requirements of a task. Students independently segment problems into discrete stages, synthesise new knowledge at intermediate stages during problem-solving and develop and apply criteria to assess ideas, proposals and emerging thinking.

Levels 9 and 10

Levels 9 and 10 Description

In Levels 9 and 10, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to recognise and manage what is often implicit in thinking. Students learn and apply techniques to progress, analyse and evaluate thinking. Students develop an understanding that it is often necessary to take a range of perspectives and to challenge assumptions.

Levels 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Questions and Possibilities

  1. Investigate the characteristics of effective questions in different contexts to examine information and test possibilities (VCCCTQ043)
  2. Suspend judgements to allow new possibilities to emerge and investigate how this can broaden ideas and solutions (VCCCTQ044)
  3. Challenge previously held assumptions and create new links, proposals and artefacts by investigating ideas that provoke shifts in perspectives and cross boundaries to generate ideas and solutions (VCCCTQ045)

Reasoning

  1. Examine a range of rhetorical devices and reasoning errors, including false dichotomies and begging the question (VCCCTR046)
  2. Examine how to identify and analyse suppressed premises and assumptions (VCCCTR047)
  3. Investigate the nature and use of counter examples structured as arguments (VCCCTR048)
  4. Consider ambiguity and equivocation and how they affect the strength of arguments (VCCCTR049)
  5. Investigate use of additional or refined criteria when application of original criteria does not produce a clear conclusion (VCCCTR050)

Meta-Cognition

  1. Critically examine their own and others thinking processes and discuss factors that influence thinking, including cognitive biases (VCCCTM051)
  2. Investigate how the use of a range of learning strategies can be monitored, evaluated and re-directed as necessary (VCCCTM052)
  3. Investigate the kind of criteria that can be used to rationally evaluate the quality of ideas and proposals, including the qualities of viability and workability (VCCCTM053)

Levels 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students construct and evaluate questions, including their own, for their effectiveness. They demonstrate a willingness to shift their perspective when generating ideas, resulting in new ways of perceiving solutions.

Students structure complex valid arguments. They explain and apply a range of techniques to test validity within and between arguments. Students identify, articulate, analyse and reflect on their own and others thinking processes. They use, monitor, evaluate and redirect as necessary a range of learning strategies. Students develop, justify and refine criteria to evaluate the quality of ideas, proposals and thinking processes.

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