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  8. 7-8
  9. 9-10

Level A

Level A Description

Personal Present History

The curriculum at Levels A to D provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may include stories...

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Level A Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Recognise personally significant objects from childhood and now (VCHHC001)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Explore a source that describes a person (VCHHC002)
  2. Explore their own perspective on events in their routine daily life (VCHHC003)
Continuity and change
  1. Explore objects from the past and present (VCHHC004)
Historical significance
  1. Experience narratives about a person or the past (VCHHC005)

Historical Knowledge

Personal histories
  1. Who they are and what they look like (VCHHK006)
  2. The people in their family (VCHHK007)
  3. Indicate what event was first in a routine daily event (VCHHK008)
  4. Similarities and differences within their daily life (VCHHK009)
Community histories
  1. Commemorate significant events (VCHHK010)
  2. Experience significant places and sites (VCHHK011)
  3. Exposure to the cultural or spiritual importance of significant places and sites (VCHHK012)
  4. Experience the use of technology in their lives (VCHHK013)

Level A Achievement Standard

By the end of Level A, students experience routine events within their daily life and react to significant chances. They react to personally significant people, objects and sites. They participate and react to significant events, which are commemorated.

Students react to stories, images and representations of familiar events and stories about them. They react to significant objects of their past and present.

Level B

Level B Description

Personal and Present Family History

The curriculum at Levels A to D provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may...

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Level B Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Recognise significant events during their lifetime (VCHHC014)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Explore a range of sources that show families over time (VCHHC015)
  2. Explore peoples perspective to events within their daily life (VCHHC016)
Continuity and change
  1. Explore features of objects from the past and present (VCHHC017)
Historical significance
  1. Assist to construct a narrative about a person or a shared past event (VCHHC018)

Historical Knowledge

Personal histories
  1. Who the people in their immediate family are (VCHHK019)
  2. The structure of their immediate family (VCHHK020)
  3. Indicate the events at the beginning of the day, at midday and evening (VCHHK021)
  4. Similarities and differences within their daily life from day to day (VCHHK022)
Community histories
  1. Awareness of significant commemorative events and ways they can assist with preparation (VCHHK023)
  2. Explore significant places and site, and events associated with them (VCHHK024)
  3. Participate in celebrations and special events of a cultural or spiritual place or site (VCHHK025)
  4. Explore different technologies used to make their daily life better (VCHHK026)

Level B Achievement Standard

By the end of Level B, students identify immediate family members. They recognise some significant events. Students respond to images of personal, family and sites of significance.

Students assist to sequence significant parts of recent familiar events. They can identify themselves at different milestones in their past. They assist to create a story about their past using a range of texts, objects and images.

Level C

Level C Description

Personal and Recent Celebrations and History

The curriculum at Levels A to D provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family;...

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Level C Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence parts within a significant event (VCHHC027)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Explore a range of sources that describe an event in the recent past (VCHHC028)
  2. Explore their perspective on how things have changed from past and present in their daily life (VCHHC029)
Continuity and change
  1. Compare features of objects from the recent past and present (VCHHC030)
Historical significance
  1. Assist to construct a narrative about a significant person or past event (VCHHC031)

Historical Knowledge

Personal histories
  1. Who the people in their family are (VCHHK032)
  2. The people and their name in the family (VCHHK033)
  3. Distinguish between events within the day and the past (VCHHK034)
  4. Similarities and differences in their daily life over time (VCHHK035)
Community histories
  1. How events are celebrated and how to assist to prepare and participate in personal, school and community events (VCHHK036)
  2. Link significant local sites and people to events (VCHHK037)
  3. Link cultural or spiritual sites to their events or history (VCHHK038)
  4. Explore changes in technology and the difference between each (VCHHK039)

Level C Achievement Standard

By the end of Level C, can identify keys routines and events within their daily life.  Students identify key members of their family and how they have changed over time. They recognise some important family events and some objects used in celebrations. They recognise some significant artefacts or objects associated with significant commemorative events or sites in local community.

Students sequence three elements within familiar recent events in order. They identify key milestones in their past. Students relate a story about their past using a range of texts, objects or images. They can identify objects and technology which has change over time.

 

Level D

Level D Description

Personal Past History

The curriculum at Levels A to D provides a study of personal and family histories. Students learn about their own history and that of their family; this may include stories...

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Level D Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant family milestones (VCHHC040)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Explore a range of sources that describe families in the past (VCHHC041)
  2. Explore peoples perspectives about change to daily life (VCHHC042)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and compare features of objects used by the family from the past and present (VCHHC043)
Historical significance
  1. Develop a narrative about a significant family member and/or place (VCHHC044)

Historical Knowledge

Personal histories
  1. Who the people in their family are and how they are related to me (VCHHK045)
  2. The different family groups in my class and what they have in common (VCHHK046)
  3. Distinguish between 'today’, ‘tomorrow’ and ‘yesterday’ (VCHHK047)
  4. Similarities and differences between their life and the life of their parents and grandparents (VCHHK048)
Community histories
  1. How they and their family celebrate past events that are important to them (VCHHK049)
  2. Explore and sequence the history of a significant place, person or building or site (VCHHK050)
  3. Explore the significance of cultural or spiritual places to us today and to people in the past (VCHHK051)
  4. Explore technologies of the past and today and what people like and why (VCHHK052)

Level D Achievement Standard

By the end of Level D, students identify similarities and differences between families in their class. They identify many important family events and indicate how they were commemorated. Students use images to describe a significant family, personal event, site or person of significance.

Students sequence their key milestones in order. They can sequence key events related to a significant person, building or site. They can sequence routine events. Students answer questions about their past by using a variety of sources provided. Students relate a narrative about their past using objects, images, and perspectives of other (parents and grandparents).

 

Foundation to Level 2

Foundation to Level 2 Description

Personal and Community Histories

In Foundation to Level 2, students study personal, family and local history. Students learn about their own history and that of their family, including stories...

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Foundation to Level 2 Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events about personal and family history to create a chronological narrative (VCHHC053)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Identify the content features of primary sources when describing the significance of people, places or events (VCHHC054)
  2. Identify perspectives about changes to daily life from people in the past or present (VCHHC055)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify examples of continuity and change in family life and in the local area by comparing past and present (VCHHC056)
Historical significance
  1. Identify the significance of a person and/or place in the local community (VCHHC057)

Historical Knowledge

Personal histories
  1. Who the people in their family are, describe where they were born and raised and how they are related to each other and how their stories are communicated and shared (VCHHK058)
  2. Differences in family structures of families and the role of family groups today, and what they have in common and how these have changed or remained the same over time (VCHHK059)
  3. How the present, past and future are signified by terms indicating and describing time (VCHHK060)
  4. Differences and similarities between students' daily lives and perspectives of life during their parents’ and grandparents’ childhoods, including family traditions, leisure time and communications (VCHHK061)
Community histories
  1. How they, their family, friends and communities commemorate past events that are important to them (VCHHK062)
  2. The history of a significant person, building, site or part of the natural environment in the local community and what it reveals about the past (VCHHK063)
  3. The significance today of an historical site of cultural or spiritual importance (VCHHK064)
  4. The effect of changing technology on people’s lives and their perspectives on the significance of that change (VCHHK065)

Foundation to Level 2 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 2, students explain aspects of daily life to identify how some have changed over recent time while others have remained the same. They describe personal and family life, a person, site or event of significance in the local community.

Students use sources (physical, visual, oral) including the perspectives of others (parents, grandparents) to describe changes to daily life and the significance of people, places or events. They compare objects from the past and present. Students create a narrative about the past using terms and a range of sources. 

Levels 3 and 4

Levels 3 and 4 Description

Community and First contacts

In Levels 3 and 4, students explore the history and diversity of their community and the celebrations and commemorations, symbols and emblems important to Australians...

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Levels 3 and 4 Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events in chronological order to create a narrative about one navigator, explorer or trader and Australian settlement (VCHHC066)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Identify the origin and content features of primary sources when describing the significance of people, places and events (VCHHC067)
  2. Describe perspectives of people from the past (VCHHC068)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and describe continuity and change over time in the local community, region or state and as a result of the effects of European exploration (VCHHC069)
Cause and effect
  1. Identify and explain the causes and effects of European settlement and exploration (VCHHC070)
Historical significance
  1. Describe the significance of Australian celebrations, symbols and emblems (VCHHC071)

Historical Knowledge

Community, remembrance and celebrations
  1. The significance of Country and Place to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who belong to a local area (VCHHK072)
  2. A significant example of change and a significant example of continuity over time in the local community, region or state/territory (VCHHK073)
  3. The role that people of diverse backgrounds have played in the development and character of the local community and/or other societies (VCHHK074)
  4. One significant narrative, myths or celebration from the past (VCHHK075)
  5. Significance of days and weeks celebrated or commemorated in Australia and the importance of symbols and emblems, including Australia Day, ANZAC Day, Harmony Week, National Reconciliation Week, NAIDOC week and National Sorry Day (VCHHK076)
  6. Significance of celebrations and commemorations in other places around the world (VCHHK077)
First contacts
  1. The diversity and longevity of Australia’s first peoples and the significant ways Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are connected to Country and Place (land, sea, waterways and skies) and the effects on their daily lives (VCHHK078)
  2. The journey(s) of a significant world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with and effects on other societies (VCHHK079)
  3. Stories of the First Fleet, including causes and reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences and perspectives following arrival (VCHHK080)
  4. The nature of contact between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and others, for example, the Macassans and the Europeans, and the effects of these interactions (VCHHK081)

Levels 3 and 4 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 4, students explain how and why life changed in the past, and identify aspects of the past that remained the same. They describe the experiences and perspectives of an individual or group over time. They recognise the significance of events in bringing about change.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order to identify key dates, causes and effects. They identify sources (written, physical, visual, oral), and locate information about their origin and content features. They describe perspectives of people from the past and recognise different points of view. Students create a narrative or description which explains continuity and change and cause and effect using historical terms.

Levels 5 and 6

Levels 5 and 6 Description

From Colony to Nation

In Levels 5 and 6, students study colonial Australia in the 1800s and the development of Australia as a nation, particularly after 1900. Students look at the founding of British...

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Levels 5 and 6 Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events and lifetimes of people in chronological order to create a narrative to explain the developments in Australia’s colonial past and the causes and effects of Federation on its people (VCHHC082)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Identify the origin, content features and the purpose of historical sources and describe the context of these sources when explaining daily life in colonial Australia, reasons for migration and causes and effects of Federation (VCHHC083)
  2. Describe perspectives and identify ideas, beliefs and values of people and groups in the past (VCHHC084)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and describe patterns of continuity and change in daily life for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, ‘native born’ and migrants in the Australian colonies (VCHHC085)
Cause and effect
  1. Explain the causes of significant events that shaped the Australian colonies, contributed to Australian Federation and the effects of these on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and migrants (VCHHC086)
Historical significance
  1. Explain the significance of an event and an individual or group that influenced change in the Australian colonies and in Australian society since Federation (VCHHC087)

Historical Knowledge

The Australian colonies
  1. The social, economic and political causes and reasons for the establishment of British colonies in Australia after 1800 (VCHHK088)
  2. The nature of convict or colonial presence, including the factors that influenced changing patterns of development, how the environment changed, and aspects of the daily life of the inhabitants, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCHHK089)
  3. The effects of a significant development or event on a colony (VCHHK090)
  4. The causes and the reasons why people migrated to Australia from Europe and Asia, and the perspectives, experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony (VCHHK091)
  5. The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping and changing a colony (VCHHK092)
Australia as a nation
  1. The significance of key figures and events that led to Australia’s Federation, including British and American influences on Australia’s system of law and government (VCHHK093)
  2. The different experiences and perspectives of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, migrants, women, and children (VCHHK094)
  3. The stories and perspectives of people who migrated to Australia, including from one Asian country, and the reasons they migrated (VCHHK095)
  4. Significant contributions of individuals and groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and migrants, to changing Australian society (VCHHK096)

Levels 5 and 6 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 6, students identify and describe change and continuity and explain the causes and effects of change on society. They compare the different experiences and perspectives of people in the past. They explain the significance of an individual and group.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order, and represent time by creating timelines. They identify a range of sources and locate and compare information about the origin, content features and the purpose of historical sources. Students describe the historical context of these sources to describe perspectives of people from the past and recognise different points of view. Students develop texts, particularly narratives and descriptions of continuity and change. In developing these texts and organising and presenting their information, students create an explanation about a past event, person or group using sources of evidence and historical terms and concepts.

 

Levels 7 and 8

Levels 7 and 8 Description

The Ancient World to the Modern World

In Levels 7 and 8, students study history from the time of the earliest human communities to the end of the ancient period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) &...

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Levels 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events in chronological order to analyse the causes and effects and identify continuities and changes (VCHHC097)
  2. Describe and explain the broad patterns of change over the period from the Ancient to the Modern World (VCHHC098)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Analyse and corroborate sources and ask questions about their accuracy, usefulness and reliability (VCHHC099)
  2. Analyse the different perspectives of people in the past (VCHHC100)
  3. Explain different historical interpretations and contested debates about the past (VCHHC101)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and explain patterns of continuity and change in society to the way of life (VCHHC102)
Cause and effect
  1. Analyse the causes and effects of significant events that caused change and/or a decline over the period (VCHHC103)
Historical significance
  1. Evaluate the role and achievement of a significant individual, development and/or cultural achievement that led to progress (VCHHC104)

Historical Knowledge

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures
  1. How physical or geographical features influenced the development of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ communities, foundational stories and land management practices (VCHHK105)
  2. The significant beliefs, values and practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures including trade with other communities, causes and effects of warfare, and death and funerary customs (VCHHK106)
  3. The nature of sources of evidence about ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s ancient past, such as the use of resources (VCHHK107)
  4. The importance of conserving the remains of the ancient past, including the heritage, culture and artefacts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCHHK108)
Ancient world and early civilisations – 60 000 BC (BCE) – c.650 AD (CE)

European and the Mediterranean world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Egypt
  • Greece
  • Rome

The Asia-Pacific world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • India
  • China
  1. How physical features influenced the development of the civilisation (VCHHK109)
  2. Changes in society and the perspectives of key groups effected by change including the influence of law and religion (VCHHK110)
  3. Significant beliefs, values and practices with a particular emphasis on changes to everyday life, cause and effect of warfare, and perspectives of death and funerary customs (VCHHK111)
  4. Causes and effects of contacts and conflicts with other societies and/or peoples, resulting in developments such as expansion of trade, colonisation and war, and spread of beliefs (VCHHK112)
  5. The role and achievements of a significant individual in an ancient society (VCHHK113)
  6. The different methods and sources used by historians and archaeologists to investigate history and/or a historical mystery (VCHHK114)
  7. The significance and importance of conserving the remains and heritage of the past (VCHHK115)
Middle Ages and early exploration

European and the Mediterranean world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • The Vikings (c.790 – c.1066)
  • Medieval Europe (c.590 – c.1500)
  • The Ottoman Empire (c.1299 – c.1683)

The Asia-Pacific world

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Angkor/Khmer Empire (c.802 – c.1431)
  • Mongol Expansion (c.1206 – c.1368)
  • Japan under the Shoguns (c.794 – 1867)
  • The Polynesian expansion across the Pacific (c.700 – 1756)

Expanding Contacts: Discovery and Exploration

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Renaissance Italy (c.1400 – c.1600)
  • The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c.1492 – c.1572)
  1. The significant social, cultural, economic, environmental and political changes and continuities in the way of life and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (VCHHK116)
  2. Significant causes and effects of developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the concentration and/or expansion of wealth and power (VCHHK117)
  3. Perspectives of subject peoples and their interactions with power and/or authority of others (VCHHK118)
  4. The role and achievements of a significant individual and/or group (VCHHK119)
  5. One significant challenge and one development faced by the society that caused progress or decline (VCHHK120)

Levels 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students identify and explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments. They identify the motives and actions of people at the time. Students evaluate the significance of individuals and groups and how they were influenced by the beliefs and values of their society. They evaluate different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework with reference to periods of time. They locate and select historical sources and identify their origin, content features and purpose. Students explain the historical context of these sources. They compare and contrast historical sources and ask questions about their accuracy, usefulness and reliability. Students analyse the different perspectives of people in the past using sources. They explain different historical interpretations and contested debates about the past. Students construct an explanation using sources of evidence to support the analysis. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

Levels 9 and 10

Levels 9 and 10 Description

The Making of the Modern World and Australia

In Levels 9 and 10, students study the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918 and the modern world and Australia from 1918–present. It covers...

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Levels 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Historical Concepts and Skills

Chronology
  1. Sequence significant events in chronological order to support analysis of the causes and effects of these events and identify the changes they brought about (VCHHC121)
  2. Analyse and evaluate the broad patterns of change over the period 1750–present (VCHHC122)
Historical sources as evidence
  1. Analyse and corroborate sources and evaluate their accuracy, usefulness and reliability (VCHHC123)
  2. Analyse the different perspectives of people in the past and evaluate how these perspectives are influenced by significant events, ideas, location, beliefs and values (VCHHC124)
  3. Evaluate different historical interpretations and contested debates (VCHHC125)
Continuity and change
  1. Identify and evaluate patterns of continuity and change in the development of the modern world and Australia (VCHHC126)
Cause and effect
  1. Analyse the long term causes, short term triggers and the intended and unintended effects of significant events and developments (VCHHC127)
Historical significance
  1. Evaluate the historical significance of an event, idea, individual or place (VCHHC128)

Historical Knowledge

The making of the modern world
Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914)

  1. Causes that led to the Industrial Revolution, and other conditions and ideas that influenced the industrialisation of Britain and of Australia (VCHHK129)
  2. Causes of population movements and settlement patterns during this period and the significant changes to the way of life of groups of people (VCHHK130)
  3. Different experiences and perspectives of individuals or groups and how ideas, beliefs and values changed during the significant events of the Industrial Revolution (VCHHK131)
  4. Significant effects of the Industrial Revolution, including global changes in landscapes, movements of people, development and influence of ideas, political and social reforms, and transport and communication (VCHHK132)
Australia and Asia

Students investigate the history of either Australia and/or an Asian society in the period 1750 – 1918.

  1. Key social, cultural, economic, and political features of one society at the start of the period (VCHHK133)
  2. Intended and unintended causes and effects of contact and extension of settlement of European power(s), including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (VCHHK134)
  3. Significant events and influencing ideas in the development of the society, including different perspectives of the events at the time and different historical interpretations and debates (VCHHK135)
  4. Patterns of continuity and change and their effects on influencing movements of people, ways of life and living conditions, political and legal institutions, and cultural expression around the turn of the twentieth century (VCHHK136)
  5. Different experiences and perspectives of non-Europeans and their perspectives on changes to society, significant events, ideas, beliefs and values (VCHHK137)
  6. Position of the society in relation to other nations in the world by 1918 including the effects of ideas and movements of people (VCHHK138)
The modern world and Australia
Australia at war (1914 – 1945): World War I

  1. Causes of World War I, the reasons why men enlisted to go to war, and how women contributed in the war effort (VCHHK139)
  2. Significant places where Australians fought and explore their perspectives and experiences in these places (VCHHK140)
  3. Significant events, turning points of the war and the nature of warfare (VCHHK141)
  4. Effects of World War I, with a particular emphasis on the changes and continuities brought to the Australian home front and society (VCHHK142)
  5. Significance of World War I to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the Britain, the USA and Asia (VCHHK143)
  6. Different historical interpretations and contested debates about World War I and the significance of Australian commemorations of the war (VCHHK144)
Australia at war (1914 – 1945): World War II

  1. Causes of World War II and the reasons why Australians enlisted to go to war (VCHHK145)
  2. Significant places where Australians fought and their perspectives and experiences in these places (VCHHK146)
  3. Significant events, turning points of World War II and the nature of warfare (VCHHK147)
  4. Effects of World War II, with a particular emphasis on the changes and continuities brought to the Australian home front and society (VCHHK148)
  5. Significance of World War II to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the Britain, the USA, Asia and United Nations (VCHHK149)
  6. Different historical interpretations and contested debates about World War II and the significance of Australian commemoration of war (VCHHK150)
Rights and freedoms (1945 – the present)

  1. Significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including Australia’s involvement in the development of the declaration (VCHHK151)
  2. Causes of the struggle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples for rights and freedoms before 1965 (VCHHK152)
  3. Effects of the US civil rights movement and its influence on Australia (VCHHK153)
  4. Significance of the following events in changing society: 1962 right to vote federally, 1967 Referendum, Reconciliation, Mabo decision, Bringing Them Home Report (the Stolen Generations), the Apology and the different perspectives of these events (VCHHK154)
  5. Effects of methods used by civil rights activists to achieve change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the role of one individual or group in the struggle (VCHHK155)
  6. Continuity and change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in securing and achieving civil rights and freedoms in Australia (VCHHK156)
The globalising world

Students investigate one major global influence that has shaped Australian society, including the development of the global influence during the twentieth century.

Choose at least one of the following:

  • Popular culture
  • The Environment movement
  • Migration experiences
  • Political Crisis

  1. Effects of significant post-World War II world events and developments on one major global influence that shaped change in Australian society (VCHHK157)
  2. Causes and developments of the major global influences on Australia (VCHHK158)
  3. Changing social, cultural, historical, economic, environmental, political and technological conditions on a major global influence in Australia (VCHHK159)
  4. The perspectives of people and different historical interpretations and debates from the period (VCHHK160)

Levels 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students refer to significant events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to identify and evaluate the patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their significance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students evaluate the significance of events and analyse the developments from a range of perspectives. They evaluate the different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. They locate and select historical sources and identify...

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