Skip to main content Skip to navigation


  1. 7-8
  2. 9-10

Levels 7 and 8

Levels 7 and 8 Description

Students become familiar with the restored pronunciation of Latin. They use appropriate phrasing and voice inflection when reading aloud, reciting or performing Latin texts such as stories, dialogues, songs or plays, and develop their understanding of the sounds of the Latin alphabet. When translating Latin texts, students apply their knowledge of Latin grammar, including parts of speech, case...

Show more

Levels 7 and 8 Content Descriptions

Engaging with texts

Accessing the Roman world through Latin texts Elaborations
  1. Read, comprehend and discuss Latin texts, using vocabulary, grammar and textual cues, to explore the Roman world (VCLAE001)
    1. developing an initial sense of the structure and content of texts by inferring meaning from textual cues, for example, titles, headings, images or captions to images, maps
    2. listening to simple sentences in Latin to infer meaning, using aural cues such as ecce; olim; cur; ubi; euge; eheu
    3. determining the general sense of texts through initial holistic reading, by identifying familiar people, vocabulary, places or topics, and recognising modern editors’ use of punctuation to guide readers
    4. analysing sentences, identifying and explaining the function of inflected forms, for example, puella canem vocat (subject + object + verb) or Aemilia est soror mea (subject + verb + complement)
    5. identifying and discussing linguistic features in narratives, such as word order, use of the interrogative particle, striking word choice, for example, media in via; venitne; ululavit; iratissimus
    6. interpreting and commenting on language choices, such as patterns and length of simple and compound sentences, use of direct speech or imagery, for example, the writer’s choice of a dramatic verb to make an action more vivid, as in in atrium volat rather than in atrium intrat
    7. exploring social, contextual and cultural references embedded in texts, for example, patronus, cliens; civis; patria potestas; bulla; toga praetexta; mehercle!
    8. interpreting stated and implied meanings in texts and supporting an opinion with evidence from the Latin, such as relationships between characters, for example, servi dominum timent; ancilla servum delectat
  2. Convey information and ideas about the daily life and attitudes of the Romans, in oral, written and digital forms, using Latin as appropriate (VCLAE002)
    1. gathering, collating and presenting information about daily routine in the Roman world, such as posters or digital displays about family life, education, food, hygiene, exercise, with annotations in English or words and simple phrases in Latin
    2. reading stories about the daily lives of ancient Romans, and recreating their everyday experiences, for example, through role play or an imaginative animated cartoon
    3. comparing details from different sources about where Roman people lived, such as in tenements or houses, or on country estates, for example, through dioramas or drawings, with labels in English or Latin, and discussing what they reveal about different lifestyles in the Classical period
    4. researching the purpose and function of spaces in a Roman home, such as in a domus or a villa, for an oral or digital presentation, using labels in English and Latin, for example, vestibulum, atrium, triclinium, cubicula, peristylium
    5. examining artefacts from the Roman period, such as those from Pompeii, and discussing what they reveal about the everyday lives of Romans
    6. collating and sharing information online about Roman engineering and infrastructure, such as roads, aqueducts, cloaca maxima
    7. researching the attitudes of Romans revealed in Graeco-Roman myths and legends and acting out stories, such as Romulus and Remus, or Hercules’ labours, to convey these attitudes
    8. gathering and creating a class bank of information from texts about Roman religious beliefs and practices, for example, Olympian deities, Lares et Penates, special festivals such as the Liberalia and the Vestalia
    9. reading accounts of historical events, such as Pliny’s eyewitness account of the eruption of Vesuvius, and presenting information in new ways, for example, creating and recording own news report or documentary, making comparisons between Pliny’s account and an online reconstruction of the eruption
Responding to texts Elaborations
  1. Listen to and read Latin texts, such as stories, myths and plays; share reactions and make connections with characters, events, actions, settings and key emotions (VCLAE003)
    1. listening to and reading texts, such as stories about daily life in the city/country or public entertainment, and responding to questions in English relating to content and context
    2. recognising recurring characters, settings and themes in texts, drawing on previous knowledge and experiences to make connections with the narrative, for example, the domineering master or the insolent slave; Pompeii; Vesuvius
    3. discussing how scenes and characters are depicted in texts, for example, in short plays, dialogues, retelling of well-known myths and legends, through devices such as imagery or conversations
    4. discussing language features that encourage the audience to respond in particular ways, for example, the use of repetition, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia
    5. recognising that writers use different text structures and formats for specific purposes and effects, for example, change of focus, a story within a story, plot tension
    6. identifying and discussing the techniques writers use to achieve specific effects, such as the use of antithesis to create humour or surprise, for example, omnes pueri rident sed Publius non ridet.
  2. Read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts, using phrasing and voice inflection to convey meaning and to entertain others (VCLAE004)
    1. listening to and reproducing familiar and unfamiliar words, phrases and simple texts in Latin to convey meaning, using appropriate phrasing and expression, and the restored pronunciation, for example, cachinnare; clamare; vituperare; furcifer; monstrum horribile
    2. presenting short texts orally in Latin, such as stories, dialogues or songs, to peers or the class, for example, singing songs such as gaudeamus igitur; duc, duc navem duc
    3. performing short Latin plays or dialogues in collaboration with others, using strategies to convey the emotions of the characters
    4. reading aloud or reciting, individually or in a class group, extracts from Latin literature, such as the initial lines of Virgil’s Aeneid or an epigram
Translating Elaborations
  1. Translate Latin texts into Standard English, by applying knowledge of vocabulary, accidence and syntax, and linguistic and cultural cues (VCLAE005)
    1. reading texts to gain a sense of holistic meaning, and identifying cues, such as text type, familiar vocabulary, grammar and cultural references
    2. considering multiple meanings of vocabulary, for example, by using dictionaries and electronic translation tools, and making appropriate selections according to context, for example, petit; ago; de
    3. using known vocabulary, in Latin or English, and context to deduce the meaning of unknown words, for example, clamor, exclamare; puer in cubiculo dormit (dormitory)
    4. identifying meanings of words by recognising change of form, such as third declension nouns and irregular verbs, for example, nomen, nominis; est, sunt
    5. identifying parts of speech and their function in context to determine meaning, for example, identifying which noun is the subject of the verb
    6. identifying the specific function of inflected forms to determine meaning, for example, puella canem videt (subject + object + verb) or puella est laeta (subject + verb + complement)
    7. applying knowledge of grammar to recognise in context the specific function of words which may have multiple applications, such as whether nomen or cives is subject or object
    8. developing problem-solving skills to resolve perceived issues and anomalies encountered in the translation process, for example, confusion of genitive and nominative forms such as domini
    9. exploring the effect of using the variety of English translations for tenses and making selections according to context, for example, clamat – ‘she is shouting’, ‘she shouts’, ‘she does shout’
    10. selecting appropriate English meanings, identifying words and expressions that do not translate easily, for example, res; virgo; vir; consul spectaculum dat
    11. discussing how words that refer to aspects of Roman culture should be translated, for example, servus (‘slave’ rather than ‘servant’)
    12. determining appropriate word order in English to retain meaning and emphasis, for example, agricolam in agro taurus petit
    13. translating Latin into idiomatic English, for example, by translating ego et tu as ‘you and I’
    14. discussing and correcting or improving own translations to increase accuracy and reflect register, tone and relationships between characters
    15. collaborating with peers to interpret meaning in texts and develop and edit joint translations, using a range of ICT
    16. applying appropriate strategies to translate, independently, unseen Latin texts
  2. Compare different translations and interpretations of Latin texts, and identify features of successful translations (VCLAE006)
    1. identifying the characteristics of a successful translation, such as grammatical accuracy
    2. examining translations to determine how effectively Latin is conveyed in English idiom, such as the use of articles
    3. comparing and discussing the merits of different translations of the same text, identifying differences and recognising that they may be equally valid
    4. giving and justifying opinions about the effectiveness of own and others’ translations
    5. identifying and discussing effective strategies to create appropriate translations, such as skimming through the text and identifying familiar words and phrases, contextualising new vocabulary, and using these strategies to review and polish own translations


Systems of language Elaborations
  1. Understand the phonological and orthographic systems of Latin, including the restored pronunciation and the written alphabet (VCLAU007)
    1. recognising that the written alphabet used by the Romans is the basis for the modern English alphabet, although some letters are pronounced differently, for example, u/v; i, c and g
    2. mimicking or copying the restored pronunciation of Latin words, individually or with peers
    3. matching script to sound, using the restored pronunciation, for example, single consonants, long and short vowels, vowels before final m, diphthongs, h and aspirated h, consonant combinations/clusters as in ingens, magnus, urbs
    4. distinguishing i as a vowel and as a consonant, for example, intrat; ianua
    5. using the spoken stress of Latin, and dramatic expression appropriate to the tone and purpose of a text
    6. acknowledging the absence of punctuation in Latin in comparison with English, for example, by working with a sentence spelt out with no pauses between words
    7. recognising conventions of punctuation used by editors of Latin texts to assist comprehension
  2. Understand concepts of accidence and syntax used in simple and compound Latin sentences, including parts of speech, case, gender, number, person, declension and conjugation, agreement and tense, and conventions of sentence structure (VCLAU008)
    1. identifying parts of speech and their functions in texts, such as in statements, direct speech, commands and questions
    2. exploring the concepts of number, gender, case and the metalanguage used to describe nouns
    3. understanding noun inflections and their usage in first, second and third declensions:
      • case: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, for example, amicus, amice, amicum, amici, amico, amico
      • number: villa, villae
      • gender: masculine dominus, feminine domina, neuter atrium, common canis, parens
    4. recognising personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives, and identifying number, gender and case, for example, ego, tu, nos, vos; meus, tuus
    5. recognising interrogative pronouns, for example, quis, quis, quid
    6. recognising demonstrative pronouns, for example, hic, haec, hoc; ille, iste
    7. identifying cardinal numbers unus to viginti and ordinal numbers primus to decimus
    8. recognising prepositional phrases and the different forms of prepositions, for example, e villa, ex urbe
    9. distinguishing between the meanings of prepositions when governing different cases, for example, in villam, in villa
    10. exploring the concepts of verb number, person and tense, the metalanguage used to describe verbs
    11. identifying endings of verbs in the four conjugations, and regular and irregular verbs in the present tense, active voice
    12. identifying the use of the imperative, for example, tacete vos omnes
    13. identifying first/second and third declension adjectives, for example, laeta/laetus; tristis
    14. recognising agreement of adjectives and nouns in number, gender and case, for example, puella tristis, frater magnus, and how word order may differ from English
    15. interpreting compound sentences using conjunctions, for example, canis intrat sed non latrat
    16. recognising adverbs, for example, servus diligenter laborat
    17. understanding conventions of word order in Latin sentences, such as subject + direct object + indirect object + verb, for example, puella librum fratri legit, and how those conventions can be used to anticipate the development of a sentence
    18. developing strategies for building on prior knowledge and learning new grammar, for example, mnemonic devices, paradigms, drill exercises, online learning tools
  3. Acquire and build vocabulary by using roots, derivatives and word lists, and use dictionaries to select appropriate meanings of Latin words (VCLAU009)
    1. developing own and class lists of vocabulary related to texts and topics, such as daily life in ancient Rome, for example, thermae, caldarium; magister, ludus
    2. creating a class bank of words that are frequently used, for example, tamen; alii … alii …; eheu!, and common expressions used in everyday activities, for example, salvete; ludere volo
    3. practising vocabulary knowledge, for example, by using online tools such as drills
    4. using print and electronic dictionaries to locate the appropriate meanings of words
    5. understanding that one Latin word may correspond to several different English words and selecting the most appropriate meaning of a word in its context
    6. developing strategies for vocabulary building by applying knowledge of roots, for example, ager/agricola and derivatives, for example, agriculture
    7. building vocabulary by recognising Latin words commonly used in English, for example, exit, video, arena
  4. Identify the structure and features of a range of texts in Latin, such as narratives and short plays (VCLAU010)
    1. identifying elements of different types of text, for example, stories, dialogues and plays, and explaining the relationship between the language and structure used and the purpose of the text
    2. distinguishing and comparing features of a story and a play, such as narrative voice, characterisation, impact of direct speech
    3. making connections and comparisons between a new text and familiar texts of the same type
    4. using metalanguage to explain the effect of particular language features on intended audiences, for example, exclamations, interjections, such as o me miserum; euge; eheu
The powerful influence of language and culture Elaborations
  1. Understand that Latin spread with the expansion of the Roman empire, developed over time into the Romance languages, and influenced English vocabulary (VCLAU011)
    1. recognising that Latin is a member of the Indo-European family of languages, related to other ancient languages, such as Classical Greek, Sanskrit and Old Persian
    2. recognising that Latin was influenced by languages of other ancient peoples, such as Greek
    3. locating on a map the places where Latin was spoken across the area of Roman influence, from Britain to West Asia
    4. researching how Latin evolved into its modern descendants, the Romance languages, and comparing words, such as numbers, duo (Latin) – deux (French) – due (Italian) – dos (Spanish) – doi (Romanian) – dois (Portuguese), or words such as ‘hand’ or ‘friend’ across languages
    5. applying knowledge of Latin to understand words and expressions in Romance languages, for example, tempo; liberté, égalité, fraternité; amigo; la dolce vita
    6. identifying and using Latin derivatives to expand own English vocabulary, for example, maternal/paternal, nominate, puerile
    7. recognising connections between spelling of Latin and English words and applying understanding to improve own spelling in English, for example, first conjugation verb such as portat – English ‘portable’, compared with fourth conjugation verb audit – audible
    8. identifying expressions and abbreviations in Latin that are commonly used in English, for example, post mortem, in loco parentis; e.g., i.e., am, pm, etc.
    9. identifying words of Latin origin that are used in subjects across the school curriculum, for example, data, agriculture, commerce, equilateral, formula, mesa, tablet
    10. identifying and collecting word families in which the same Latin root is used with different prefixes or suffixes, for example, reduce, introduce, deduce, conduct, produce
    11. exploring and discussing the meaning of simple Latin mottoes used by modern institutions, such as the Olympic motto citius, altius, fortius
  2. Examine the enduring influence of Roman culture on the modern world, by discussing the ancient origins of modern customs, religion, literature and architecture (VCLAU012)
    1. recognising the ancient origins of national values such as citizenship, liberty, equity and justice
    2. exploring ancient connections with daily routines in modern society, such as family life, occupations, schooling, the calendar, and leisure pursuits such as dice, board games
    3. tracing Roman customs still used in modern ceremonies, such as weddings and funerals
    4. identifying influences from Latin literature on popular culture, for example, Harry Potter, Romeo and Juliet, Percy Jackson, superheroes such as Superman and Hercules
    5. exploring connections between ancient and modern music, for example, musical instruments such as the cithara, flutes, drums and contemporary songs composed in Latin, such as Bastille’s Pompeii with Latin lyrics
    6. recognising the Roman influence on religion, such as Christian traditions
    7. researching elements of Roman engineering and architecture in bridges, aqueducts, amphitheatres, drainage systems and public buildings in Australia and across the world
Role of language and culture Elaborations
  1. Recognise that the language of the Romans provides insights into their daily lives, ideas, feelings and attitudes (VCLAU013)
    1. investigating connections between language and significant cultural attitudes, for example, discussing how the terms civis, libertus, servus relate to rights of citizens
    2. exploring and discussing language use that reflects social structure in ancient Rome, for example, pater familias, patronus/cliens relationships, matrona; Julia = daughter of Julius
    3. exploring references in texts to life at home, daily bathing, dining and entertainment, such as public spectacles, and discussing the importance of family and social life to the Romans
    4. recognising language that reflects the nature and use of private spaces, such as domus, villa, atrium, hortus, insula
    5. understanding the importance of religion and festivals in Roman society, for example, by examining references in texts to worship of the Olympian gods, or festivals such as Saturnalia
    6. considering the impact of stories about major early Roman heroes on the formation and transmission of Roman values, for example, Cloelia helping the kidnapped girls to escape, Horatius guarding the bridge
    7. discussing the influence on Romans of myths and legends, as represented in their literature and visual arts such as sculpture and mosaics, for example, Romulus and Remus, Aeneas, Hercules
    8. exploring the colloquial language that Romans used, such as salvete; gratum; licet
Reflecting Elaborations
  1. Reflect on own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language and culture of Roman society, considering similarities and differences to own language and culture (VCLAU014)
    1. considering own and others’ cultural assumptions about home and leisure and how these were different or similar in the Roman context
    2. reviewing and responding to aspects of cultural practices in Latin texts and Roman artefacts, and discussing the reactions of peers to these
    3. describing own life at home and school and making comparisons with that of young people in the Roman world
    4. developing an understanding of life in multicultural Rome, and reflecting on similarities and differences to own lifestyle in multicultural Australia
    5. discussing how young people in ancient Rome may have viewed the lives of young people in the modern world
  2. Reflect on self as a language learner, considering how learning Latin influences ways of learning and enhances understanding of own heritage, values and culture (VCLAU015)
    1. exploring own sense of identity, considering own and others’ assumptions about family, language(s) spoken, traditions, values and attitudes
    2. considering how learning about the ancient world offers different ways of interpreting the modern world and representing experience
    3. keeping a journal of experiences (humorous, satisfying or challenging) associated with learning and using Latin, noting personal reactions and reflections over time
    4. considering how the strategies adopted while learning Latin have impacted on own approaches to learning across subjects, such as setting realistic timeframes, computational thinking
    5. reflecting on the experience of learning Latin, considering how it might add a further dimension to own sense of identity
    6. reflecting and reporting on how learning Latin gives insights into the relationship between language and culture in general, and how own way of thinking about language, culture and identity may change through the experience

Levels 7 and 8 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students use their knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to identify and interpret information in Latin texts, such as narratives, about the daily life and attitudes of the Romans. They interpret grammatical structures such as inflected forms; identify linguistic features such as striking word choice, for example, laetissimus, or use of imagery, for example, dies est calidus; frigidus est rivus; infer meaning from textual cues such as headings, images or maps; and describe social and cultural practices embedded in Latin text, such as puer patrem timet. They convey information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, using Latin as appropriate, for example, a news report in English about a historical event such as the assassination of Julius Caesar, or a digital poster about family life in Rome with annotations in Latin, such as a mother instructing her daughter about how to organise the slaves and manage the household. They share their responses to Latin texts, such as stories, myths and plays, by expressing their feelings and ideas about characters, events, actions, settings and themes. They read aloud or...

Show more

Levels 9 and 10

Levels 9 and 10 Description

Students apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Latin texts, for example, stressing the correct syllables, or acknowledging elision in poetry. They apply an extended knowledge of accidence and syntax, including subordinate clauses, finite and non-finite verb forms, pronoun forms, indicative and imperative moods, and active and passive voices, to the analysis and translation...

Show more

Levels 9 and 10 Content Descriptions

Engaging with texts

Accessing the Roman world through Latin texts Elaborations
  1. Read, analyse and interpret Latin texts, using vocabulary, grammar and textual cues, to engage with the Roman world (VCLAE016)
    1. predicting the context and content of Latin texts through initial holistic reading, by identifying key words and phrases, for example, Romani Carthaginienses valde timebant
    2. inferring the meaning of new words, using knowledge of the text type and the author’s purpose and technique, for example, res, gero, rem gerere
    3. investigating and explaining the effect of word order in Latin in producing emphasis and tone, such as indignation, anger, suspense, for example, qualis vir? conclamant omnes; miser Catulle
    4. examining and interpreting complex sentence structures, such as conditional sentences, indirect speech and subordinate clauses, for example, adjectival, causal, purpose or result clauses, indirect questions or commands
    5. reflecting on the precise use of tenses in Latin and making comparisons with English, for example, cotidie ibat; si veneris
    6. explaining how the coherence of complex texts relies on devices that signal text structure and guide readers, for example, paulisper … dum … interea …; primo … deinde … tandem; non solum … verum etiam
    7. investigating how different conjunctions are used in complex sentences to extend, elaborate and explain ideas, for example, in periodic sentences using quod, quamquam, cum
    8. explaining allusions to historical or mythological characters which exemplify Roman values and attitudes, such as Romulus and Remus, Lucretia, Horatius, Cloelia
    9. discussing conventions of Latin texts, such as letter format, for example, Marcus Quinto SPD … cura ut valeas, or metre in poetry, for example, acknowledging quantities
    10. recognising positive and negative cultural connotations of concepts implicit in Latin vocabulary, for example, rex, imperium
    11. analysing cultural values and attitudes embedded in language use, for example, vocabulary and expressions particular to festivals and ceremonies such as Io triumphe; ave Caesar
    12. discussing the function and power of cultural representations such as symbols, for example, SPQR, aquila, fasces
    13. justifying interpretations of texts, using examples or quotations from or references to the text, such as line numbers or a paraphrase of a longer section of text
    14. constructing, editing and presenting interpretations of and responses to literary Latin, using ICT collaboratively
  2. Convey interpretations of information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written and digital forms, using Latin as appropriate (VCLAE017)
    1. examining how cultural attitudes are conveyed in Latin texts, such as attitudes to slaves or women, cleanliness, food, Romanisation, for example, by conducting a role-play, a forum on salient issues, a ‘Q & A’ session regarding the appropriateness of giving farming advice in verse
    2. investigating legal rights and obligations, such as citizenship, social classes, property rights, divorce, for example, building a digital representation of social strata through a pyramid
    3. researching Roman urban planning and architecture through the study of an archaeological site, and presenting findings, for example, by creating a virtual tour of the Colosseum, with written or oral text in English or incorporating Latin terms as appropriate, such as harena, vomitoria
    4. examining Roman architectural remains by electronic means, such as places of entertainment and worship, and exploring what they reveal about the values and attitudes of Romans
    5. gathering and collating information about Roman art, including sculpture, jewellery and painting, for example, producing an online exhibition catalogue
    6. researching references in Latin texts to foreign religions, for example, Mithraism, Isis worship and Christianity, and the extent of their influence in Rome
    7. examining Latin inscriptions, curses or graffiti to elicit information about Roman society, for example, defixiones from Bath, graffiti at the Colosseum or in Pompeii, and creating own examples in English or Latin
Responding to texts Elaborations
  1. Respond to Latin texts by analysing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and sharing and justifying opinions (VCLAE018)
    1. reading Latin texts and responding to questions in English to demonstrate understanding of content, context, purpose and technique
    2. exploring how language is used to reveal character, values and key messages in texts such as narratives, dialogues, plays, poems and letters, for example, Cena Trimalchionis; odi et amo
    3. discussing epic plots and characters, such as the Aeneid, for example, debating significant events and the author’s purpose
    4. analysing plot development in texts such as plays and stories, discussing literary features, for example, use of comic episode, plot twist, climax, resolution
    5. interpreting how particular stylistic effects are created, such as emphasis, doubt, irony or supposition, for example, sine dubio, satis constat, ut mihi videtur
    6. analysing how writers use language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous or persuasive purposes and effects, for example, diminutives such as puellula or homuncule
    7. evaluating the effectiveness of texts, by considering the use of stylistic features, for example, simile, metaphor, personification or pathos, for particular purposes, such as to entertain or persuade
  2. Read aloud, recite or perform Latin texts to entertain others, using strategies such as phrasing, voice inflection and metrical effects to convey meaning and emotion (VCLAE019)
    1. reading aloud, as Romans were accustomed to do, extracts from different genres of Latin literature, such as oratory, history, drama or poetry, with appropriate expression, phrasing, stress, rhythm and tone to convey meaning, for example, selections from the epigrams of Martial, or the letters of Pliny
    2. reciting or presenting extracts from Latin texts to the class or school community, using expression and movement to illustrate meaning and to entertain, for example, part of one of Cicero’s speeches or excerpts from Virgil’s Aeneid
    3. performing in theatrical presentations of Latin poetry or plays, such as the poetry of Ovid or Virgil, extracts from the plays of Plautus
Translating Elaborations
  1. Translate a range of texts that incorporate complex sentence structures and extensive vocabulary from Latin into Standard English, representing the style and purpose of the texts (VCLAE020)
    1. reading holistically to deduce the context and content of Latin texts, by identifying key words and phrases
    2. applying expanded knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and problem-solving skills to translate compound sentences and complex sentences with nested clauses
    3. conveying shades of meaning of a range of subtle vocabulary, for example, inferring the different connotations of a word in a particular context, such as virtus; causa; gero; ago
    4. inferring the meaning of words and expressions, using knowledge of the text type and the author’s purpose and style, for example, res publica; rem gerere; se gerere
    5. deducing the meaning of new words by drawing on prior knowledge, derivatives and connections with familiar words, for example, actores in scaena fabulam Graecam hilare agebant; dormire, obdormire; ferre, inferre, offerre
    6. expanding the variety of English translations for verb tenses, for example, to express indignation, clamavit as ‘she did shout’, compared to ‘she shouted’ or ‘she has shouted’
    7. recreating mood, tone and dramatic impact in English translations by selecting appropriate vocabulary, comparing and contrasting potential choices, for example, o tempora! o mores!
    8. refining translations by exploring print and online Latin and English dictionaries and thesauruses to consider a variety of meanings, for example, manus, and synonyms, for example, contentus, felix, laetus
    9. conveying emphasis and tone, such as indignation, anger, suspense, embedded in Latin word order, for example, effugere conati sunt, sed frustra
    10. rendering the precise meaning of tenses in Latin into idiomatic English, for example, cotidie ibat; si veneris
    11. expressing the meaning of idiomatic expressions and culturally specific terms by choosing appropriate English expressions and terms, for example, flocci non facio (I could care less); orationem habere (deliver a speech)
    12. constructing and editing translations collaboratively with peers, using a range of ICT
    13. improving own translations to increase accuracy and better reflect register, tone and characterisation
    14. translating, independently or in collaboration with peers, unseen texts with compound or complex sentences, drawing on familiarity with the style and language of texts already studied
  2. Evaluate different translations and interpretations of Latin texts, using metalanguage to discuss their effectiveness, and develop strategies for successful translations (VCLAE021)
    1. evaluating the effectiveness of translations, using criteria such as selection of appropriate vocabulary, grammatical accuracy, fluency, conciseness, clarity, idiomatic expression
    2. discussing how closely and effectively translations convey the author’s meaning and intent
    3. critically analysing the merits of different translations of the same text, presenting and justifying opinions, and recognising skills of others
    4. discussing strategies used to convey complex ideas and structures, such as the use of correlatives and subordinate clauses, the rendering of mood
    5. evaluating strategies used to create fluent, accurate and idiomatic translations
    6. applying identified strategies to the translation of seen and unseen texts


Systems of language Elaborations
  1. Understand and apply the principles of pronunciation for the reading of Latin texts (VCLAU022)
    1. isolating syllables and learning the rules for correctly marking the stress, for example, spec-tá-tor, compared with péc-tor-a
    2. distinguishing the change of stress required with an enclitic, for example, éstis compared with estísne; cíbus compared with cibúsque
    3. distinguishing between the primary and secondary stress in polysyllabic words, for example, spèctatóribus
    4. understanding the significance of elision when reading verse aloud, for example, od(i) et amo
  2. Understand concepts of accidence and syntax used in complex Latin sentences, including subordinate clauses, non-finite verb forms, pronoun forms, mood, voice, and conventions of complex sentence structure (VCLAU023)
    1. identifying the endings of fourth and fifth declension nouns, for example, exercitus, cornua; dies, fides
    2. acknowledging that nouns may have unexpected genders, for example, first declension agricola (m), second declension pirus (f)
    3. recognising relative, emphatic and indefinite pronouns, for example, qui, quae, quod; ipse; quisquis; quidam
    4. recognising reflexive pronouns and adjectives, for example, se; suus
    5. analysing case usage of nouns in all five declensions, for example, partitive genitive quid novi?
    6. identifying and understanding the use of the locative case, for example, Romae, Pompeiis
    7. identifying and understanding words used in apposition in all cases, for example, Venus, dea, est pulchra
    8. explaining case usage of pronouns, for example, personal ego, tu, nos, vos; demonstrative hic, ille; interrogative quis, quis, quid; relative qui, quae, quod; emphatic ipse, ipsa, ipsum; reflexive me, te, nos, vos, se
    9. distinguishing the use of different moods
    10. extending identification of indicative endings of regular and irregular verbs to different tenses
    11. understanding the concept of the principal parts for verbs in all conjugations, for example, voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum; sum, esse, fui
    12. identifying and understanding the use of infinitives for all four conjugations and irregular verbs, for example, a prolative infinitive with amat, such as natare amat
    13. recognising impersonal expressions, for example, mihi difficile est dormire
    14. understanding the use of present, future and perfect participles, for example, clamans, moriturus, vocatus
    15. recognising passive voice forms and the forms of deponent verbs and distinguishing their meanings, for example, laudata est – she has been praised; collapsa est – she collapsed
    16. distinguishing in complex sentences between principal and subordinate clauses, for example, relative, causal, temporal, concessive, conditional, such as si/nisi with the indicative
    17. recognising comparison of adjectives and adverbs, regular and irregular, for example, stulta, stultior, stultissima; malus, peior, pessimus
    18. recognising quam + superlative, for example, quam celerrime
    19. understanding conventions of the use of numbers to express distance, capacity, time and price, for example, duo milia passuum, quinquaginta denariis
    20. understanding the conventions of the Roman calendar, for example, a.d. XIV Kal Jul
    21. recognising creative variations in Latin word order, for example, delay of a key word or clause to create suspense, ordering of clauses to increase impact, bracketing/nesting, juxtaposition
  3. Expand vocabulary by using a range of strategies, including knowledge of roots, cognates and derivatives, and use dictionaries to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary in specific contexts (VCLAU024)
    1. developing vocabulary lists pertinent to particular reading, for example, military words, philosophical words, poetic words
    2. using a dictionary to investigate how vocabulary choices in Latin and English can express shades of meaning
    3. extrapolating knowledge of word origins and roots to interpret unfamiliar vocabulary, for example, aedificium: aedifico; rex, regis: regulus
    4. extending vocabulary through word-building from Latin roots, for example, caelum + colo: caelicolae, and from derivatives, for example, celestial
    5. building vocabulary by recognising English words derived from supines, for example, ‘mission’ from missum
    6. identifying and interpreting compound words, for example, ‘prefect’ from prae + factum
    7. recognising common patterns of vowel change to identify words from the same root, for example, capere: -cip (recipere)
    8. expanding vocabulary by using connections between conceptually related words, for example, pius, impius, pietas
  4. Analyse the structure and features of different text types in Latin, exploring how they relate to context, purpose and audience (VCLAU025)
    1. examining textual features used to influence an audience, such as the contrast of short and periodic sentences to persuade, or the use of repetition and humour to entertain
    2. making connections and comparisons between a new text and familiar texts of the same type
    3. analysing different texts, such as a story, historical account or speech, to understand how a version of an event can be expressed in different ways
    4. recognising different ways of presenting the same story, for example, from the viewpoint of different characters or in the form of a flashback
    5. analysing language features used to influence the intended audience, such as imagery or rhetorical devices
The powerful influence of language and culture Elaborations
  1. Understand that Latin became the official language of the Roman empire and facilitated the spread of Roman civilisation and culture, and that Latin continues to enrich English through specialist vocabulary and abstract concepts embodied in the language (VCLAU026)
    1. recognising that, as the Roman world expanded, Latin became the language of communication, trade, administration, education and law throughout its sphere of influence
    2. exploring the role of Latin in the process of Romanisation, and its influence on local languages
    3. discussing the impact on people and their lives in Roman provinces, with Latin as the common language, and Roman infrastructure such as aqueducts, sewers, roads and shipping, safe trade routes, standardised currency and weights and measures
    4. recognising the spread of ancient Greek ideas through Latin, such as the use of Greek vocabulary and concepts in literature and philosophy, for example, stadium, rhetor, theatrum, poeta, stoica, philosophia
    5. exploring abstract concepts derived from Latin, such as justice, liberty, republic, fraternity, charity, genius, piety
    6. recognising terms in English that are hybrids of Classical Greek and Latin, for example, metalanguage, quantum physics, teleconference
    7. discussing Latin words and expressions that are used in fields such as law, business and education, for example, de facto, non sequitur, agenda, forum, curriculum
    8. examining the Latin roots of English words in subjects across the school curriculum, for example, technical vocabulary related to reporting research, such as ibid and stet
    9. identifying Latin roots in English scientific, technical and medical terminology, for example, genus, species; computer, data, accumulator, super conductor, cellular differentiation, quantum teleportation; cancer, cannula, defibrillator, incision, amputation
    10. exploring how Latin is used to coin terms for new technology and new discoveries in science and medicine in the modern world, such as internet, Trojan (horse), forum, virus
    11. applying knowledge of Latin to form and explain plurals of English words borrowed from Latin, for example, indices, media, vertebrae, curricula, alumni
    12. exploring mottoes and inscriptions, such as per ardua ad astra or mens sana in corpore sano, and discussing their relevance in the modern world
    13. investigating the enduring nature and use of Latin in academic and religious ceremonies, for example, summa cum laude, honoris causa, gaudeamus igitur or pater noster
  2. Discuss how the Roman world has influenced modern society, culture and political structures, such as literature, art, medical and scientific practices, government and infrastructure (VCLAU027)
    1. exploring the ancient origins of modern political and legal structures and concepts, such as republic, balance of power, jurisprudence and judicial precedent, census and elections
    2. investigating modern social issues, such as class, the role of women and civil rights, and making comparisons with the Classical period
    3. discussing influences of Latin literature on modern novels, poetry, drama and film, such as Book IV of the Aeneid on Miss Saigon, Ovid on David Malouf’s An Imaginary Life, Virgil on Ursula Le Guin’s Lavinia
    4. recognising the transmission of literary genres, such as epic, satire, love poetry, epigram, ode
    5. investigating famous artists’ incorporation of classical themes and subjects in postclassical sculpture, painting, music, opera, theatre
    6. investigating ancient practices in medicine and science still relevant in the modern world, such as Galen’s surgical procedures and Pliny the Elder’s classification of animals and plants
Role of language and culture Elaborations
  1. Identify how cultural values, attitudes and beliefs of the Romans are embedded in their language (VCLAU028)
    1. discussing Roman values that are embedded in language, such as pietas, virtus, hospitium, fides
    2. understanding how language and cultural practices are interconnected, for example, by explaining religious origins or connotations associated with words and expressions such as the polite command in the English RIP (‘rest in peace’) and the use of the more prayerful subjunctive in the Latin requiescat in pace
    3. investigating the importance of Latin to personal status in the Roman world, as a means to social, economic and political advancement
    4. examining language that reveals information about Roman government and administration, such as res publica, senatus, comitia, consul, dictator, princeps, census, and references in texts to public service, justice and the court system
    5. discussing language that reveals the importance of public spaces and buildings in ancient Rome, for example, forum, temples, theatres
    6. explaining references in texts to amphitheatres, gladiatorial combat, Circus Maximus, ‘bread and circuses’ and understanding the important place of entertainment in the Roman world
    7. explaining the importance of religion to the Romans, with reference to concepts such as Lares et Penates, household genius, the worship of local gods at shrines, vestal virgins, cult of the Emperor
    8. researching and discussing political and cultural influences in and on the works of leading writers, such as Cicero, Horace, Virgil, Livy, for example, mos maiorum; pax Romana
    9. exploring the formal language that Romans used for greetings, or responding to the challenges of public life, such as ave, plurimas gratias, di immortales, and making comparisons with own language use in formal contexts
    10. reflecting on how language, texts and artefacts provide a means of understanding the social and cultural practices of the Romans and how they conceptualised their world
Reflecting Elaborations
  1. Question and explain own and others’ reactions to and assumptions about the language, culture and values of Roman society, discussing how these relate to own language and culture (VCLAU029)
    1. investigating the extent to which values, attitudes and practices of people of cosmopolitan Rome are similar to or different from their own
    2. exploring how cultural identity was manifested in the ancient world, and making comparisons with own cultural identity in modern Australia
    3. exploring the identity of people living in the Roman world and relating this to their own identity as a member of a local community, a state/territory/nation and as a global citizen
    4. describing own public and private lives and making comparisons with those of people in ancient Rome
    5. considering how cultural diversity has continued to be an integral feature of society since ancient times
    6. exploring the process of decentring from own linguistic and cultural standpoint and considering how own ways of behaving and communicating might be perceived by people of the past
  2. Reflect on self as a language learner, explaining how the study of Latin influences own style of communicating, ways of thinking and viewing the world (VCLAU030)
    1. exploring own sense of identity, challenging own and others’ assumptions about family and civic responsibilities, traditions, values and attitudes
    2. drawing on knowledge of ancient society to examine and interpret own world, including aspects such as ancestry, values, traditions, social status, family and national pride
    3. reflecting, such as in discussions, blogs and journals, on experiences in the course of learning Latin and their impact on perceptions of own cultural experience and ways of communicating
    4. identifying challenges and achievements associated with learning Latin, for example, learning to ‘read between the lines’ to identify thought implicit in the use of language
    5. reinterpreting own experience of learning Latin, listening to others’ perspectives and comparing these with own experience
    6. discussing how learning Latin impacts on own ways of thinking and viewing the world

Levels 9 and 10 Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students analyse a range of Latin texts to obtain information and ideas about Roman society and culture. They use vocabulary, grammar and textual cues to analyse and interpret language use and cultural references in Latin texts, such as poetry, letters or narratives, for example, by deducing the meaning of complex sentence structures, such as those with subordinate clauses or indirect speech; and explaining the impact of word order on emphasis and tone, for example, dum homines cibum devorant, subito intravit miles! and implicit values, concepts and assumptions embedded in language use, for example, arbiter bibendi. They convey their interpretations of information and ideas about Roman society and culture, in oral, written or digital forms, such as an investigation into Roman reactions to different religions, or a digital presentation on an archaeological site, for example, the forum Romanum. They share their responses to Latin texts, such as narratives, dialogues, plays, poems or letters, by describing themes, values and literary features, such as plot development and characterisation, and expressing and justifying their opinions with support from the...

Show more
Scroll to the top of the page