In Level A, students experience and respond to personally relevant and familiar situations and events that regularly and routinely involve activities and actions such as comparing, adding and removing, distributing, placing and moving.
Number and Algebra
Students observe the use of number within their daily life. They begin to respond to numbers in everyday experiences. Students demonstrate awareness of counting by responding to number rhymes, songs, stories and finger games. They experience and respond to ‘one for you, one for me’, ‘gone’, ‘no more left’ and ‘give me more’. Students participate in making piles, groups or bundles of familiar everyday objects and respond to objects being put together and taken apart.
Measurement and Geometry
Students observe and explore objects within daily life. They react and respond to objects and experience measurement attributes in practical situations. Students explore objects of varying weights, lengths, capacities and materials. They show an awareness of time and daily routine by responding to a signal from the teacher, and items being brought out or removed. Students respond to a signal from a timer, used to indicate the end of an activity. Students explore and respond to objects of varying textures, colours, sizes and shapes. Students explore space by moving and changing position and location, and respond to changes in position.
Statistics and Probability
Students observe objects and events within their daily life. Students begin to display a similar and predictable reaction to regular events. They respond to major changes to regular games and activities associated with chance, surprise and predictability, such as moving a switch to activate a toy.
In Level B, students participate in everyday activities involving making simple correspondences between objects, and explore qualitative, quantitative and comparative concepts in action and language such as none, one, more, same, different, again and gather.
They recognise regularity in some events and that not all events are certain.
Number and Algebra
Students participate in everyday activities that involve numbers and counting, comparing groups of objects, and pattern activities. Students can rote count to three. Students identify ‘one’ and ‘lots’ of objects and show an understanding of ‘more’ in familiar situations. They manipulate objects and build a tall tower by using ‘more’ blocks and take blocks away from a tower to make the tower ‘less’ tall.
Measurement and Geometry
Students participate in everyday activities that explore measurement and use measurement attributes in practical situations. Students demonstrate beginning understanding of basic measurement concepts such as ‘long or short’, ‘heavy or light’. They explore routine events and show an awareness of time and daily routines by responding to a routine...
Number and Algebra
Students participate in everyday activities that involve numbers and counting, comparing groups of objects, and pattern activities. Students can rote count to three. Students identify ‘one’ and ‘lots’ of objects and show an understanding of ‘more’ in familiar situations. They manipulate objects and build a tall tower by using ‘more’ blocks and take blocks away from a tower to make the tower ‘less’ tall.
Measurement and Geometry
Students participate in everyday activities that explore measurement and use measurement attributes in practical situations. Students demonstrate beginning understanding of basic measurement concepts such as ‘long or short’, ‘heavy or light’. They explore routine events and show an awareness of time and daily routines by responding to a routine signal from the teacher. They demonstrate an awareness of object permanence by searching for objects that have been hidden and participate in class activities that explore three-dimensional objects. They can match identical familiar three-dimensional shapes that are ‘the same’. Students respond to specific instructions relating to manipulating the movement and location of self and objects.
Statistics and Probability
Students participate in class activities that explore object, events and displaying information. They develop an awareness of chance by playing with materials or objects that involve cause and effect (actions that will happen) and playing games where the outcome is unpredictable. Students respond to a simple pictorial representation of their activities related to a short time-frame.
In Level C, students demonstrate awareness in practical situations, connecting objects, numbers names and numerals from one to three, using ‘one more than’ and ‘one less than’.
In Level C, students demonstrate awareness in practical situations, connecting objects, numbers names and numerals from one to three, using ‘one more than’ and ‘one less than’.
They match like objects, describe differences between objects for given attribute, show familiarity with stages of time and events within a day using visual schedules, visually locate named objects in a familiar environment and identify some data relevant to a situation.
Number and Algebra
Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to five elements. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from five. Students use concrete materials to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating sets. Students make ‘groups’, ‘lots’ and groups of ‘one’ and can indicate which collection has ‘more’ than the other. They can distribute objects to each person in a group until there are no objects left. Students order the first three elements of a set. Students can match one attribute of familiar objects.
Measurement and Geometry
Students explore measurement attributes in practical situations and use words to describe the characteristics of familiar objects. Students solve simple mathematical problems associated with...
Number and Algebra
Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to five elements. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from five. Students use concrete materials to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating sets. Students make ‘groups’, ‘lots’ and groups of ‘one’ and can indicate which collection has ‘more’ than the other. They can distribute objects to each person in a group until there are no objects left. Students order the first three elements of a set. Students can match one attribute of familiar objects.
Measurement and Geometry
Students explore measurement attributes in practical situations and use words to describe the characteristics of familiar objects. Students solve simple mathematical problems associated with longer and shorter lengths. They explore events and identify day and night events. They can identify events that may or may not happen today. Students respond to a simple pictorial representation of activities related to their whole day. They match objects that are the same and sort familiar objects, and an understanding of the concept of ‘inside and outside’ by following instructions. They demonstrate an understanding of location and spatial awareness by following simple instructions related to simple spatial concepts.
Statistics and Probability
Students participate in and contribute to the development of picture schedules, timetables and pictorial lists associated with familiar activities, such as listing the ingredients needed for a cooking session. They demonstrate an understanding of the concept of chance by participating in games of chance, and identifying events that may or may not happen today.
In Level D, students actively use concrete models to represent number in various situations, and use number names when comparing, counting, ordering, adding to or taking away from sets of one to...
In Level D, students actively use concrete models to represent number in various situations, and use number names when comparing, counting, ordering, adding to or taking away from sets of one to five objects.
They form the initial terms of basic patterns and identify and sequence regular daily events, make simple qualitative measurement comparisons, match objects with their pictorial representations, and name them.
Students follow instructions to place and find objects in various locations and they recognise that similar events or activities may have different outcomes at different times.
Number and Algebra
Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 10 elements. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 10. They recognise and point to numerals in and around the classroom, for example, numbers on a clock face. Students use concrete materials to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating sets. They can indicate when groups of less than 10 objects are the same or different in number and that two collections have the ‘same’ quantity by matching items one to one. They can find the first and last object in a sequence and place objects into sets to make ‘more’ and take objects from a group to make ‘less’. Students order the first five elements of a set. They sort objects and shapes based on a given attribute...
Number and Algebra
Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 10 elements. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 10. They recognise and point to numerals in and around the classroom, for example, numbers on a clock face. Students use concrete materials to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating sets. They can indicate when groups of less than 10 objects are the same or different in number and that two collections have the ‘same’ quantity by matching items one to one. They can find the first and last object in a sequence and place objects into sets to make ‘more’ and take objects from a group to make ‘less’. Students order the first five elements of a set. They sort objects and shapes based on a given attribute and create simple repeating patterns of two elements or more by copying a pattern.
Measurement and Geometry
Students explore measurement attributes in practical situations and identify and describe the basic characteristics of a range of objects. They can identify regular events within the school week. They can follow a class pictorial schedule and mark off each passing day on a calendar. Students demonstrate an understanding of two- and three-dimensional shapes by matching basic geometric objects to pictures of that object, identifying basic three-dimensional shapes in the classroom and sorting shapes into like groups. Students show an understanding of ‘location’ and spatial concepts by responding to instructions to position items.
Statistics and Probability
Students explore events and follow a simple picture schedule, and use these to answer simple ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions. They play a variety of chance games such as bingo or snakes and ladders and demonstrate an understanding that they will not always win.
In Foundation level, students play with objects and draw pictures to develop links between their immediate environment, everyday language and mathematical activity.
Students classify and sort objects...
In Foundation level, students play with objects and draw pictures to develop links between their immediate environment, everyday language and mathematical activity.
Students classify and sort objects into sets and form simple correspondences between them. They decide when two sets are of equal size, or one is smaller or bigger than another. They develop an understanding of the concepts of number and numeral, count, order, add and share using small sets of objects. They create and continue simple patterns.
Students compare common objects with respect to length, mass and capacity, and order events and compare their duration. They make rough estimates and simple measurements with respect to informal units. Students name, sort and describe familiar everyday shapes and objects, and describe position and movement in their immediate environment.
Students investigate situations requiring data collection and presentation in simple displays, and recognise unpredictability and uncertainty in some events.
Number and Algebra
Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 20 elements, estimate the size of these sets, and use counting strategies to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating these sets. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 20. Students order the first 10 elements of a set. They represent, continue and create simple patterns.
Measurement and Geometry
Students identify measurement attributes in practical situations and compare lengths, masses and capacities of familiar objects. They order events, explain their duration, and match days of the week to familiar events. Students identify simple shapes in their environment and sort shapes by their common and distinctive features. They use simple statements and gestures to describe location.
Statistics and Probability
Students sort familiar categorical data into sets and use these to answer yes/no questions and make simple true/false statements about the data.
In Level 1, students use mathematical symbols and language as well as materials and drawings in their mathematical explorations of daily life.
Students recognise, represent and order numbers to...
In Level 1, students use mathematical symbols and language as well as materials and drawings in their mathematical explorations of daily life.
Students recognise, represent and order numbers to at least 100 using materials, diagrams, words, numerals and a number line, and apply this with respect to the value of Australian coins. They group and skip count by twos, fives and tens, and count to 100 by partitioning and using place value. Students solve simple addition problems, and share into two equal groups or parts to model one-half.
Students use uniform informal units to measure and compare length and capacity. They tell time to the half-hour and use time and calendar terms such as hours, days, weeks and months to describe duration. Students use terms such as corner, edge and face to classify familiar shapes and objects, and are able to give and follow directions to familiar locations.
Students use one-to-one correspondences to display categorical data obtained from a simple investigation. They identify chance events in familiar contexts and use everyday language such as ‘will happen’, won’t happen’ or ‘might happen’ in relation to these.
Number and Algebra
Students count to and from 100 and locate these numbers on a number line. They partition numbers using place value and carry out simple additions and subtractions, using counting strategies. Students recognise Australian coins according to their value. They identify representations of one half. Students describe number sequences resulting from skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. They continue simple patterns involving numbers and objects with and without the use of digital technology.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use informal units of measurement to order objects based on length, mass and capacity. They tell time to the half-hour and explain time durations. Students describe two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They use the language of distance and direction to move from place to place.
Statistics and Probability
Students describe data displays. They ask questions to collect data and draw simple data displays. Students classify outcomes of simple familiar events.
In Level 2, students use grouping partitioning and re-arrangement to apply place value and extend the range of numbers they use and apply to thousands.
Students recognise, model and order numbers...
In Level 2, students use grouping partitioning and re-arrangement to apply place value and extend the range of numbers they use and apply to thousands.
Students recognise, model and order numbers to at least 1000 and use a variety of strategies to count efficiently, including skip counting forwards and backwards by twos threes, fives and tens, with and without the use of technology. They explore the relationship between addition and subtraction, and use a variety of strategies to solve problems, including missing number problems. Students use groups and arrays to represent multiplication and division and solve simple problems, including finding halves, quarters and eighths of sets and shapes. They count and order by value, small collections of Australian coins and notes.
Students compare and order sets of shapes and objects based on length, area, volume and capacity using uniform informal units. They compare masses using balance scales, tell the time to the quarter hour, and use months and seasons to describe sequences of events over a longer time frame. Students describe sets of shapes and objects defined in terms of properties, and draw examples of these with and without the use of technology. They use simple maps and identify relative locations, and investigate the effect of simple transformations of slides, flips, half and quarter turns, both by hand and using technology.
Students use questions of interest to gather and display data for a single categorical variable and interpret it. They identify chance in a range of activities and describe related outcomes as ‘likely’ or ‘unlikely’.
Number and Algebra
Students count to and from, and order numbers up to 1000. They perform simple addition and subtraction calculations, using a range of strategies. They find the total value of simple collections of Australian notes and coins. Students represent multiplication and division by grouping into sets and divide collections and shapes into halves, quarters and eighths. They recognise increasing and decreasing number sequences involving 2s, 3s, 5s and 10s, identify the missing element in a number sequence, and use digital technology to produce sequences by constant addition.
Measurement and Geometry
Students order shapes and objects, using informal units for a range of measures. They tell time to the quarter hour and use a calendar to identify the date, days, weeks and months included in seasons and other events. Students draw two-dimensional shapes, specify their features and explain the effects of one-step transformations. They recognise the features of three-dimensional objects. They interpret simple maps of familiar locations.
Statistics and Probability
Students collect data from relevant questions to create lists, tables and picture graphs with and without the use of digital technology. They interpret data in context. Students use everyday language to describe outcomes of familiar events.
In Level 3, students increasingly use mathematical terms and symbols to describe computations, measurements and characteristics of objects.
Students recognise, model and order numbers to at least...
In Level 3, students increasingly use mathematical terms and symbols to describe computations, measurements and characteristics of objects.
Students recognise, model and order numbers to at least 10 000 and place four digit numbers on a number line with regard for scale. They partition and re-arrange to facilitate calculations involving addition and subtraction. Students have facility with single digit addition and related subtraction facts, and recall multiplication and related division facts for twos, threes, fives and tens. They formulate and solve simple multiplication and division problems, estimate answers and use technology to check calculations. Students group money to a specified value in several ways, and calculate change required in simple transactions. They model and represent multiples of unit fractions up to a whole, using arrays on a number line. They write simple rules for number patterns and generate those patterns.
Students use metric units of length, mass and capacity to measure, order and compare objects. They associate angle with measure of turn and compare angles in everyday situations. They tell the time in minutes and convert between units of time. They use simple grids in maps and identify symmetry.
Students carry out investigations, collect and organise data into categories and use different methods with and without technology to display the data. They conduct experiments involving chance, describe possible outcomes and recognise variability in results.
Number and Algebra
Students count and order numbers to and from 10 000. They recognise the connection between addition and subtraction, and solve problems using efficient strategies for multiplication with and without the use of digital technology. Students recall addition and multiplication facts for single-digit numbers. They represent money values in various ways and correctly count out change from financial transactions. Students model and represent unit fractions for halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and eighths, and multiples of these up to one. They classify numbers as either odd or even, continue number patterns involving addition or subtraction, and explore simple number sequences based on multiples.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use metric units for length, area, mass and capacity. They tell time to the nearest minute. Students identify symmetry in natural and constructed environments. They use angle size as a measure of turn in real situations and make models of three-dimensional objects. Students match positions on maps with given information and create simple maps.
Statistics and Probability
Students carry out simple data investigations for categorical variables. They interpret and compare data displays. Students conduct chance experiments, list possible outcomes and recognise variations in results.
In Level 4, students extend the number system to simple decimal fractions, and broaden their use of measures and scales.
Students model, represent and order numbers to tens of thousands, and extend...
In Level 4, students extend the number system to simple decimal fractions, and broaden their use of measures and scales.
Students model, represent and order numbers to tens of thousands, and extend place value to tenths and hundredths. They investigate odd and even numbers and explore number patterns based on multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Students develop facility with multiplication facts up to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They investigate simple equivalent fractions and count by halves, thirds and quarters, and locate corresponding elements on a number line. Students use simple decimals to solve money problems including total cost and change. They solve simple number sentences and word problems involving all four operations.
Students use scaled instruments with metric units to measure and compare length, mass, capacity and temperature. They compare shapes and objects using familiar metric units for area and volume, and compare angles with respect to a right angle. Students use 'am' and 'pm' notations, and solve simple time problems, including conversions between units of time. They construct new shapes by combining or splitting common shapes, and create symmetric patterns, pictures and shapes with and without the use of technology. They interpret and use basic maps with simple scales, directions and legends.
Students select and trial different methods for collecting data, including surveys. They construct suitable data displays with and without the use of technology, where there is a many-to-one relationship between elements of graphs and data, and evaluate the effectiveness of different displays. They identify relative likelihood of everyday events, and identify events that are mutually exclusive and events that are independent.
Number and Algebra
Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples...
Number and Algebra
Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of single-digit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line.
Measurement and Geometry
Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes, using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. Students use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area, mass, capacity and temperature of shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical simple and composite shapes and patterns, with and without the use of digital technology. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students interpret information contained in maps.
Statistics and Probability
Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events.
In Level 5, students extend decimal fractions to thousandths, and explore the ideas of factors, multiples and divisibility.
Students use estimation and rounding for all four operations, with and...
In Level 5, students extend decimal fractions to thousandths, and explore the ideas of factors, multiples and divisibility.
Students use estimation and rounding for all four operations, with and without the use of technology for calculation. They solve multiple digit problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division by single digit divisors with remainders. Students represent, compare and order unit fractions, and decimal fractions, and represent them on a number line. They construct simple budgets for familiar events and activities. They solve numbers sentences involving division, and create number patterns involving fractions and decimals.
Students choose and use suitable metric and other units for measurement of length, angle, area, volume, capacity and mass. They calculate the perimeter and area of rectangles, and construct specified angles using protractors and other relevant technologies. Students use 12 and 24 hour time systems, with measurements and conversions to seconds. They use grid reference systems to describe location and connect three-dimension objects with two-dimensional representations. They translate, reflect and rotate shapes with and without the use of technology, and identify point and line symmetries. They explore similarity of familiar shapes through enlargement.
Students pose questions to collect categorical and numerical data by observation and survey, and represent the data in a variety of ways with and without the use of technology. They describe and interpret data sets in context. Students recognise that probabilities are measured on a scale of 0 to 1 (inclusive), and represent the probability of events from simple experiments using fractions.
Number and Algebra
Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles and volume, and capacity of rectangular prisms. They...
Number and Algebra
Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles and volume, and capacity of rectangular prisms. They convert between 12 and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They estimate angles, and use protractors and digital technology to construct and measure angles. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry.
Statistics and Probability
Students pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology. They compare and interpret different data sets. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1.
In Level 6, students work with prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and carry out mental, written and technology based computation to solve whole number problems involving all four operations...
In Level 6, students work with prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and carry out mental, written and technology based computation to solve whole number problems involving all four operations. They explore everyday situations involving integers, and use a number line to represent them. They scale decimals by powers of ten, and add and subtract decimals with and without technology, and estimate their answers. Students calculate simple percentage discounts, multiply decimals by whole numbers, carry out divisions with terminating decimal remainders, and use simple fraction, decimal and percentage equivalences with and without technology. They create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals, describe their rules, and use brackets and order of operations to write number sentences involving multiple operations.
Students use decimals for metric measurement, convert between units, recognise the prefixes used in metric measurements, and relate and compare measures and units, including capacity and volume. They develop and use timetables. Students investigate combinations of transformations with and without technology, and use the Cartesian coordinate system to describe location in the plane. They investigate the sum of angles at a point on a line and vertically opposite angles.
Students carry out experiments involving chance with and without technology, compare variation in frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies, and use fractions, decimals and percentages to describe probabilities. They interpret a range of data displays, including those for two categorical variables, and interpret data presented in the media.
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals...
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students write number sentences using brackets and order of operations, and specify rules used to generate sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They use ordered pairs of integers to represent coordinates of points and locate a point in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane.
Measurement and Geometry
Students relate decimals to the metric system and choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation. They solve problems involving time, length and area, and make connections between capacity and volume. Students interpret a variety of everyday timetables. They solve problems using the properties of angles and investigate simple combinations of transformations in the plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students construct simple prisms and pyramids.
Statistics and Probability
Students interpret and compare a variety of data displays, including displays for two categorical variables. They analyse and evaluate data from secondary sources. Students compare observed and expected frequencies of events, including those where outcomes of trials are generated with the use of digital technology. They specify, list and communicate probabilities of events using simple ratios, fractions, decimals and percentages.
In Level 7, students work with powers of whole numbers, use index notation, represent numbers as products of powers of prime numbers, and investigate square roots of perfect squares. They use number...
In Level 7, students work with powers of whole numbers, use index notation, represent numbers as products of powers of prime numbers, and investigate square roots of perfect squares. They use number properties to assist with calculation and order, and to add and subtract integers. Students find equivalent fractions, represent positive and negative fractions and mixed numbers on a number line and add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions and decimals with and without the use of technology. They express one quantity as a fraction of another, round to a specified number of decimal places, and convert between fractions, decimals and percentages. They find percentages of quantities and one quantity as a percentage of another. They solve simple ratio problems and calculate best buys with and without the use of technology.
Students use variables to express relationships in real life data, and interpret and analyse corresponding graphs. They use pro-numerals to construct simple algebraic expressions and substitute numerical values into these. They solve simple linear equations and plot points on the Cartesian plane.
Students use formulas for calculating areas of triangles, rectangles and related shapes, and volumes of cubes and rectangular prisms. They form two-dimensional representations of prisms, buildings and other structures. They use simple combinations of transformations, with and without technology, to create geometric patterns and identify line and point symmetry, apply parallel line and transversal angle properties, angles sums in triangles and quadrilaterals, classify triangles and quadrilaterals, and construct them using compass and straight edge and dynamic geometry technology.
Students construct sample spaces for simple experiments involving chance, and assign probabilities to outcomes. They use data from primary and secondary sources to investigate issues of interest, and employ data displays such as dot plots and stem and leaf plots to compare data sets, and calculate measures of centre and simple measures of spread to analyse and interpret the data.
Number and Algebra
Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers and connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane...
Number and Algebra
Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers and connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions.
Measurement and Geometry
Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals and represent transformations of these shapes on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students name the types of angles formed by transversals crossing parallel lines and solve simple numerical problems involving these lines and angles. They describe different views of three-dimensional objects, and use models, sketches and digital technology to represent these views. Students calculate volumes of rectangular prisms.
Statistics and Probability
Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign probabilities outcomes.
In Level 8, students consolidate their proficiency with the four arithmetic operations, and combinations of these, for general computation involving natural numbers, integers and rational numbers...
In Level 8, students consolidate their proficiency with the four arithmetic operations, and combinations of these, for general computation involving natural numbers, integers and rational numbers, with and without the use of technology. They represent these numbers on the real number line. They extend the use of indices and develop the index laws using number examples. Students investigate the relationship between decimal and fraction representations of rational numbers (terminating and recurring decimals) and work with some irrational real numbers such as square roots and multiples and fractions of π (pi). They solve a range of problems involving ratios, proportions, percentages and rates, with and without the use of digital technologies.
Students generalise from number to algebra, and expand, factorise, simplify and substitute into simple algebraic expressions. They plot linear relations on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology, solve linear equations and apply linear models.
Students convert between units for area and for volume, and solve problems involving duration using 12-hour and 24-hour time, within a given time zone. They develop and use formulas for calculating perimeters and areas of quadrilaterals and circles, and volumes of prisms, and solve related measurement problems.
Students use congruence and transformations to establish properties of plane shapes related to sides, angles and symmetry, and solve related problems.
Students use the logical connectives ‘not’, ‘and’, ‘or’ and ‘either … or’ to relate events to probabilities, and use Venn diagrams and two-way tables to calculate probabilities. They develop an understanding that probabilities range from 0 to 1 and that the sum of probabilities for events in a sample space is 1.
Students investigate and use various techniques for collecting data, including random sampling. They use digital technology to explore the variability of proportions and means in random samples drawn from a given population, and investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers, on the measure of centre (average).
Number and Algebra
Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.
Measurement and Geometry
Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the...
Number and Algebra
Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.
Measurement and Geometry
Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes.
Statistics and Probability
Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.
In Level 9, students develop familiarity with a broader range of non-linear and linear functions and relations, and related algebra and graphs.
Students apply index laws with integer indices to...
In Level 9, students develop familiarity with a broader range of non-linear and linear functions and relations, and related algebra and graphs.
Students apply index laws with integer indices to a range of numerical expressions and extend this to algebraic expressions involving numbers and pro-numerals. They use indices to express very large and very small numbers in scientific notation, and apply this in measurement contexts. Students solve problems involving direct proportion and rates, and simple interest. They apply coordinate geometry to finding the distance between two points in the Cartesian plane, and the midpoint and gradient of a line segment joining two points. Students graph linear relations and solve linear equations, using tables of values, graphs and algebra. They graph simple non-linear relations such as parabolas, the reciprocal function, and circles at the origin, and solve simple related equations with and without the use of digital technology.
Students find areas of composite shapes and the surface area and volumes of right prisms and cylinders. They solve problems involving very small and very large time scales and intervals, and use scientific notation in this context. Students use similarity, enlargement transformations and apply geometric reasoning to solve problems involving ratio and scale factors. They use Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry ratios to solve problems in the plane involving right angles triangles, and develop an understanding that these involve irrational real numbers, which are generally represented by rational approximations specified to a given accuracy.
Students list outcomes for two-step experiments involving selections with and without replacement, using arrays and tree diagrams, and determine related probabilities. They use Venn diagrams and two-way tables to calculate probabilities and relative frequencies from collected or given data to estimate probabilities. They identify issues and questions involving categorical and numerical data, use back-to-back stem-plots and histograms to describe and compare the distribution of data in terms of location (centre), spread and symmetry or skew.
Number and Algebra
Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without...
Number and Algebra
Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles.
Statistics and Probability
Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events.
In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical...
In Level 10, students extend their use of mathematical models to a wide range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts, involving the use of all types of real numbers. They recognise the role of logical argument and proof in establishing mathematical propositions. Students apply mental, written or technology-assisted forms of computation as appropriate, and routinely use estimation to validate or provide bounds for their answers. They use exponential functions to model compound interest problems.
Students expand, factorise, simplify and substitute into a wide range of algebraic expressions, including linear, quadratic, and exponential terms and relations, as well as simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators. They solve related equations, linear inequalities and simultaneous linear equations, with and without the use of digital technology. They explore the connection between tabular, graphical and algebraic representations of non-linear relations, including circles with centres at any location in the Cartesian plane.
Students solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of objects, and follow proofs of key geometric results involving the application of congruence and similarity. They solve practical problems in two and three dimensions involving right angles triangles, Pythagoras theorem and trigonometry.
Students extend their work in probability to combinations of up to three events, using lists, tables, Venn diagrams, tree diagrams and grids as applicable to determine probabilities. They explore the concepts of conditional probability and independence, and their application to solving problems involving chance events.
Students use quartiles and the interquartile range as a measure of spread, and construct and interpret boxplots to compare data sets. They relate box plots to corresponding dot plots and histograms. Students explore the association between two numerical variables using scatterplots, in particular with time as the independent variable. They discuss claims made using statistics in various media articles and other reports, on issues of interest.
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite...
Number and Algebra
Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.
Measurement and Geometry
Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular lines, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions.
Statistics and Probability
Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments.
Level 10A provides optional, additional content for students to be extended in their mathematical studies.
Students could extend work in number and algebra to investigate the structure and properties...
Level 10A provides optional, additional content for students to be extended in their mathematical studies.
Students could extend work in number and algebra to investigate the structure and properties of number systems, with further analysis of order relations and inequalities. They could extend the study of trigonometry to include an introduction to circular functions and equations, or extend the study of indices and exponential functions to logarithms, including an introduction to logarithmic functions.
Students could extend work in measurement and geometry to proving a broader range of geometric propositions solving trigonometric problems in non-right angles triangles, or solving three dimensional problems involving surface area and volume of cones and spheres and composite shapes.
Students could extend work in statistics and probability to explore the concepts of conditionality, dependence and independence in depth, or consider how various measures of location and spread can be used to describe the distribution of a data set, and investigate how robust these are with respect to variation in the data, in particular with respect to measurement error.